History 104 week 3 notes
History 104 week 3 notes History 104
Popular in American Civilization Since 1865
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Curtis on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kari Frederickson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see American Civilization Since 1865 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
1/25/16 Reconstruction à Plantation systemà • Needs to change • Had to figure out a way to rebuild the south o Sharecropping Freedman’s Bureauà • Get southerners working again • Provide food and clothing • Set up school o Before couldn’t go to school unless rich o Schools for poor whites and poor blacks o Some were integrated, but segregated in the rural areas • Only federal agency working in the south o Started as an agent of the army • Deals with people following of the army • Only supposed to last a year to get people back on their feet • Ends up lasting about five years o Under funded and under staffed • Takes over the process of sharecropping Political battle with reconstructionà • Andrew Johnson VS. Congress o Johnson didn’t want federal government to do much at all, wanted states to take control o Congress is becoming more radical thinking they should step in and fix Johnsons messà 1866 • Civil rights act of 1866 o Congress passes this o Gives basic rights to African Americans § Says they are citizens of the country § Buy and sell property § Able to sue in the court of law § Legal equality o States weren’t doing their job o Federal government has the right to intervene o Johnson vetos it § Congress overrides him o Starts a show down between who will control the reconstruction th • 14 amendment th o with a few changes, the civil rights act of 1866 becomes the 14 amendment o federal citizenship to people who were born in this country o if a state does something to deny these rights, that state will loose representation in congress o over state has to ratify ità vote yes o South is people who follow Johnson, but knows that if they don’t ratify they wont get their seats § Decide to veto anyways and follow Johnson o Congress then takes over the process from the presidentà leads to congressional reconstruction • Military/Congressional/Radical Reconstruction 1867à o Thaddeus Stephens and Charles Sumner are leading the charge § Fully committed to the rights of the freedmen o Lasts for about 10 years o Divides the south into military districts § 5 districts each overseen by a general of the army a goal of creating a new state government § register all men of voting age o Had to ratify the 14 amendment and allow for black male suffrage, right to vote cannot be denied based off race o Starting to see more black people into office o Got rid of all Black Codes o Started funding the school system, becomes a government responsibility o Nothing about segregation, for or against o A lot of fraud that takes place amongst government officials o Raised taxesà schools, orphanages, ect. But no one has any money • 15 amendmentà 1870 o cannot be denied the right to vote because of your race o does not give anyone the right to vote, but the state cannot deny you o under reconstruction • Final act of reconstructionà civil rights act of 1875 o If you own a place of public accommodation, anywhere you’re serving the public in anyway, you cannot discriminate based on race. • What ended reconstruction? o As more of white men get their rights back they begin to vote out the rights of these radical governments, then vote in white democrats o Violence/KKK § Many people began to go around and shoot/kill wealthy land owners § Secret organization that was created in 1866 § Goal: organization of political terror, wanted to return to the south as closely to its antebellum era as possible. Was their way of getting back political power o Pressure from the north § Got tired of reconstruction § People lost focus and attention to the goal of reconstruction o Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina had radical republican governments left o Election of 1876 ends it all § Hayesà republican § Tildenà democrat § Very close election, neither party had the majority § 7 democrats, 7 republicans, and 1 independent • 1 independent ended up losing his seat making it 8 republicans to 7 democrats and the republicans win § Hayes promised to end reconstruction, send money to the south, and take the military presence out of the south 1/27/16 Creating a Modern Industrial Society à • Changed from being an agricultural society into an industrial society o About 50 years to transition From 1860-‐1915 o 1860s o Before the industrial takeover you would not travel far out of your town, you would marry a boy you’ve known your whole life, you lived near/with your families as you got older § Everything was local o 1915 o Cotton is no longer that importantà machinery is now how we gain wealth o Half the people that work for wages work in factories o Your power is slowly leaving you o More good being produced by machineà cheaper o Gaining more access to goods o Bringing people together by being able to live our lives in similar ways o Changes in Economy o Importance of steel § Makes everything else possible § Allows us to become a coast to coast country § Allows us to build factories to create all over goods § Bessemer process process of making steel. Made it possible to create 3-‐5 tons of steel in about 15 minutes o Railroads § Had steel rails § Allowed us to transport people all over their country § Also added jobs § Created time zones in order to allow people to know exactly when the trains would comeà helped their business • They changed and control time Government, government intensions o Where is the government is spending money and putting their energy into industrialization? o How did railroads get help from government? o Government gives a certain plot of land and saying you should lay your tracks here, if people help to fund the railroad o After the rails have been set the companies have a bunch of land left and then sell that and make money for themselves The American West o Railroads help bring people to the west o Farmers, miners, ect. o Miners o Many people who traveled west tried to mine, many failed o A lot of run by corporations because they had the money to provide material to mine with o Role of Federal Government in the West o Homestead Act § Family living in a section of the country that doesn’t have a lot of land can be set up with a plot of land out in the west if they agree to farm and live there for five years § Gave people the ability to have their own land and move west o Removing Indiansà people who already lived there New Way of doing business o no changes would have occurred if business had stayed as small as they were in the 1860sà not enough people o had to adapt to the new ways of travel and power th o many created corporationsà business model of late 19 century o railroads first example o board of directors o stock holders/investors o protective tariffs o want to protect things we make here o but taxes on things being imported from other countries § if they want to sell in America they will be taxed making American goods more affordable o want to promote American business o creating monopolies to dominate the workplaceà start working together more o hurts the American consumers o Interstate Commerce Commission o Would give rates to big shippers more tax than small o Sherman Antitrust Act o Denied the ability to pull together and scam consumers Who worked in the new factories? o New urban industrial workers o Farmers o Became more efficient which means that there is not as much need for people working on the farm o Immigrants o Really powered the new factories, along with some farmers who moved to the city o Feared they would be violent o 1850-‐1860 § 5,000,000 immigrants come in that periodà most from England and Ireland, protestant and catholic o moving into the 1870-‐1860 many are coming from Germany and Scandinavianà moving to the mid west § 10,000,00 § farmers and small business owners o 1890-‐1914à biggest wave § 15,000,000 § coming from Greece, Poland, Russia, Jewish, Italy § many of their home lands are in crisis § new immigrantsà not welcomes with open arms
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