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History 104 week 3 notes

by: Taylor Curtis

History 104 week 3 notes History 104

Taylor Curtis
GPA 3.3

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Week three notes
American Civilization Since 1865
Kari Frederickson
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Curtis on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kari Frederickson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see American Civilization Since 1865 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 01/27/16
1/25/16   Reconstruction à       Plantation  systemà   •   Needs  to  change     •   Had  to  figure  out  a  way  to  rebuild  the  south   o   Sharecropping   Freedman’s  Bureauà   •   Get  southerners  working  again   •   Provide  food  and  clothing     •   Set  up  school   o   Before  couldn’t  go  to  school  unless  rich   o   Schools  for  poor  whites  and  poor  blacks   o   Some  were  integrated,  but  segregated  in  the  rural  areas   •   Only  federal  agency  working  in  the  south     o   Started  as  an  agent  of  the  army     •   Deals  with  people  following  of  the  army     •   Only  supposed  to  last  a  year  to  get  people  back  on  their  feet     •   Ends  up  lasting  about  five  years   o   Under  funded  and  under  staffed     •   Takes  over  the  process  of  sharecropping     Political  battle  with  reconstructionà   •   Andrew  Johnson  VS.  Congress   o   Johnson  didn’t  want  federal  government  to  do  much  at  all,  wanted  states  to  take   control   o   Congress  is  becoming  more  radical  thinking  they  should  step  in  and  fix  Johnsons   messà  1866   •   Civil  rights  act  of  1866   o   Congress  passes  this   o   Gives  basic  rights  to  African  Americans   §   Says  they  are  citizens  of  the  country   §   Buy  and  sell  property   §   Able  to  sue  in  the  court  of  law   §   Legal  equality   o   States  weren’t  doing  their  job   o   Federal  government  has  the  right  to  intervene     o   Johnson  vetos  it     §   Congress  overrides  him   o   Starts  a  show  down  between  who  will  control  the  reconstruction     th •   14  amendment   th o   with  a  few  changes,  the  civil  rights  act  of  1866  becomes  the  14  amendment     o   federal  citizenship  to  people  who  were  born  in  this  country   o   if  a  state  does  something  to  deny  these  rights,  that  state  will  loose   representation  in  congress     o   over  state  has  to  ratify  ità  vote  yes   o   South  is  people  who  follow  Johnson,  but  knows  that  if  they  don’t  ratify  they   wont  get  their  seats   §   Decide  to  veto  anyways  and  follow  Johnson     o   Congress  then  takes  over  the  process  from  the  presidentà  leads  to   congressional  reconstruction     •   Military/Congressional/Radical  Reconstruction  1867à   o   Thaddeus  Stephens  and  Charles  Sumner  are  leading  the  charge   §   Fully  committed  to  the  rights  of  the  freedmen     o   Lasts  for  about  10  years   o   Divides  the  south  into  military  districts   §   5  districts  each  overseen  by  a  general  of  the  army  a  goal  of  creating  a   new  state  government     §   register  all  men  of  voting  age   o   Had  to  ratify  the  14  amendment  and  allow  for  black  male  suffrage,  right  to  vote   cannot  be  denied  based  off  race     o   Starting  to  see  more  black  people  into  office   o   Got  rid  of  all  Black  Codes   o   Started  funding  the  school  system,  becomes  a  government  responsibility     o   Nothing  about  segregation,  for  or  against     o   A  lot  of  fraud  that  takes  place  amongst  government  officials     o   Raised  taxesà  schools,  orphanages,  ect.  But  no  one  has  any  money     •   15  amendmentà  1870   o   cannot  be  denied  the  right  to  vote  because  of  your  race   o   does  not  give  anyone  the  right  to  vote,  but  the  state  cannot  deny  you   o   under  reconstruction   •   Final  act  of  reconstructionà  civil  rights  act  of  1875   o   If  you  own  a  place  of  public  accommodation,  anywhere  you’re  serving  the  public   in  anyway,  you  cannot  discriminate  based  on  race.     •   What  ended  reconstruction?   o   As  more  of  white  men  get  their  rights  back  they  begin  to  vote  out  the  rights  of   these  radical  governments,  then  vote  in  white  democrats     o   Violence/KKK   §   Many  people  began  to  go  around  and  shoot/kill  wealthy  land  owners   §   Secret  organization  that  was  created  in  1866   §   Goal:  organization  of  political  terror,  wanted  to  return  to  the  south  as   closely  to  its  antebellum  era  as  possible.  Was  their  way  of  getting  back   political  power   o   Pressure  from  the  north   §   Got  tired  of  reconstruction     §   People  lost  focus  and  attention  to  the  goal  of  reconstruction     o   Florida,  Louisiana,  and  South  Carolina  had  radical  republican  governments  left   o   Election  of  1876  ends  it  all   §   Hayesà  republican   §   Tildenà  democrat   §   Very  close  election,  neither  party  had  the  majority     §   7  democrats,  7  republicans,  and  1  independent     •   1  independent  ended  up  losing  his  seat  making  it  8  republicans  to   7  democrats  and  the  republicans  win   §   Hayes  promised  to  end  reconstruction,  send  money  to  the  south,  and   take  the  military  presence  out  of  the  south       1/27/16   Creating  a  Modern  Industrial  Society à   •   Changed  from  being  an  agricultural  society  into  an  industrial  society     o   About  50  years  to  transition     From  1860-­‐1915   o   1860s   o   Before  the  industrial  takeover  you  would  not  travel  far  out  of  your  town,  you   would  marry  a  boy  you’ve  known  your  whole  life,  you  lived  near/with  your   families  as  you  got  older   §   Everything  was  local     o   1915   o   Cotton  is  no  longer  that  importantà  machinery  is  now  how  we  gain  wealth   o   Half  the  people  that  work  for  wages  work  in  factories     o   Your  power  is  slowly  leaving  you   o   More  good  being  produced  by  machineà  cheaper     o   Gaining  more  access  to  goods   o   Bringing  people  together  by  being  able  to  live  our  lives  in  similar  ways   o   Changes  in  Economy   o   Importance  of  steel     §   Makes  everything  else  possible   §   Allows  us  to  become  a  coast  to  coast  country   §   Allows  us  to  build  factories  to  create  all  over  goods   §   Bessemer  process  process  of  making  steel.  Made  it  possible  to  create   3-­‐5  tons  of  steel  in  about  15  minutes   o   Railroads   §   Had  steel  rails     §   Allowed  us  to  transport  people  all  over  their  country     §   Also  added  jobs     §   Created  time  zones  in  order  to  allow  people  to  know  exactly  when  the   trains  would  comeà  helped  their  business     •   They  changed  and  control  time   Government,  government  intensions   o   Where  is  the  government  is  spending  money  and  putting  their  energy  into   industrialization?   o   How  did  railroads  get  help  from  government?   o   Government  gives  a  certain  plot  of  land  and  saying  you  should  lay  your  tracks   here,  if  people  help  to  fund  the  railroad     o   After  the  rails  have  been  set  the  companies  have  a  bunch  of  land  left  and  then   sell  that  and  make  money  for  themselves   The  American  West   o   Railroads  help  bring  people  to  the  west   o   Farmers,  miners,  ect.   o   Miners   o   Many  people  who  traveled  west  tried  to  mine,  many  failed   o   A  lot  of  run  by  corporations  because  they  had  the  money  to  provide  material  to   mine  with     o   Role  of  Federal  Government  in  the  West   o   Homestead  Act   §   Family  living  in  a  section  of  the  country  that  doesn’t  have  a  lot  of  land  can   be  set  up  with  a  plot  of  land  out  in  the  west  if  they  agree  to  farm  and  live   there  for  five  years   §   Gave  people  the  ability  to  have  their  own  land  and  move  west   o   Removing  Indiansà  people  who  already  lived  there   New  Way  of  doing  business     o   no  changes  would  have  occurred  if  business  had  stayed  as  small  as  they  were  in  the   1860sà  not  enough  people   o   had  to  adapt  to  the  new  ways  of  travel  and  power     th o   many  created  corporationsà  business  model  of  late  19  century   o   railroads  first  example   o   board  of  directors     o   stock  holders/investors     o   protective  tariffs   o   want  to  protect  things  we  make  here   o   but  taxes  on  things  being  imported  from  other  countries   §   if  they  want  to  sell  in  America  they  will  be  taxed  making  American  goods   more  affordable     o   want  to  promote  American  business     o   creating  monopolies  to  dominate  the  workplaceà  start  working  together  more   o   hurts  the  American  consumers     o   Interstate  Commerce  Commission   o   Would  give  rates  to  big  shippers  more  tax  than  small     o   Sherman  Antitrust  Act   o   Denied  the  ability  to  pull  together  and  scam  consumers     Who  worked  in  the  new  factories?   o   New  urban  industrial  workers     o   Farmers   o   Became  more  efficient  which  means  that  there  is  not  as  much  need  for  people   working  on  the  farm   o   Immigrants   o   Really  powered  the  new  factories,  along  with  some  farmers  who  moved  to  the   city     o   Feared  they  would  be  violent     o   1850-­‐1860   §   5,000,000  immigrants  come  in  that  periodà  most  from  England  and   Ireland,  protestant  and  catholic     o   moving  into  the  1870-­‐1860  many  are  coming  from  Germany  and  Scandinavianà   moving  to  the  mid  west   §   10,000,00   §   farmers  and  small  business  owners   o   1890-­‐1914à  biggest  wave   §   15,000,000   §   coming  from  Greece,  Poland,  Russia,  Jewish,  Italy     §   many  of  their  home  lands  are  in  crisis     §   new  immigrantsà  not  welcomes  with  open  arms          


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