History 101, Week 2
History 101, Week 2 HY 101
Popular in Western Civ To 1648
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Crews on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Daniel Riches in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Western Civ To 1648 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Week 2 Notes The Early Greeks Greek World in the Bronze Age Aegean Sea Bronze Age Cultures o Cycladic c. 2500-1900 BC Non-military force Island o Minoan c. 2000-1400 BC Island of Crete Politically unified Very similar to the Near East: kings, centralized government, religion and politics were combined (like Egypt), bureaucratic Little military Greater equality for women than most cultures at this time Pay taxes in king; government’s responsibility to collet and redistribute For this task to be completed successfully, they had to literate (which also means they created their own alphabet) o Mycenaean c. 1600-1200 BC Greek main land but grew to include the islands and some of Asia Minor Military culture Probably not politically unified Borrowed culture from Cycladic and Minoan Military elite governed Demise: Dorian invasions o Most likely a myth o Foreign military intervention Series of natural disasters Plugged into the main civilizations of the Near East o Very dependent on the cultures and trade from their culture o When the cultures of the Near East went into chaos, Greece could not survive Dark Ages and Aftermath Greek “Dark Ages” c. 1200-700 BC o Consequences for isolation Serious population decline Sharp decline of cities Almost complete disappearance of urban culture; rise of rural culture Disappearance of large scale governments Tiny chiefdoms, 2 or 3 towns in total Very little trade with anyone Very large decline in culture The Greeks return to being illiterate No art, went backwards o Advantages of isolation Forced an independence Created a cultural unity Role of Geography in Greek Development o Water The Aegean Sea made it very accessible to influence Connection to the Near East and developing west o Predisposed to smaller localized government o Waterways made it easy to communicate with different tribes and cultures Rivers, streams, and ocean made it easy and quick to travel o Agriculture Hard to grow food; the communication help share/trade foods Social Organizations o Male-oriented o Slave society o Basic social unit was the household Eight Contrary Renaissance of “Age of Revolution c. 750-650 BC o Renewal of trade contacts in the East o Development of new arts Stereotypical Greek art and architecture Development of mythology and epic poems Greek Gods very fluid Homer o Probably not a singular person, although the Greeks believed he was one person o Most likely a group of people who started the epic poems o Odyssey and Iliad products of the Dark Ages These tales were very nostalgic of what it was like in the Bronze Age Belief in individualism, glory o Were obsessed with people and psychology o Rise of PanHellenic religions shrines and temples and festivals o Rise of the Olympic Games o Connection brought cultural unity o Rise in population was great; consequences: Return of urban living Encouragement to trade with Near East Greater division of labor Rise of wealthy land owners Creation of leisure class To think, create, and govern were their main responsibilities Colonizing, even across the Mediterranean Bringing with them their culture, language, etc. The Greek Polis Rise of the Polis Polis o City-state: self-governing, political unit o Started as the small villages in Dark Ages o Citadels were built; fortresses used for refuge Geographic reasons for placement Had shrines to their patron God/Goddess Economic functions: became a marketplace o Shares a sense of common identity o Majority of “citizens” lived outside the polis o Size of a normal county Athens o Very densely populated Most citizens did have political power Number of men was around 40,00 at height Rise of aristocracy and wealthy merchant class o Rejected the older form of government from the Dark Ages Changing military organization o Hoplites Militia; citizen soldiers Phalanx No individualism, teamwork, mutual trust, great sacrifice Later, there would be a rule stating that the body of the phalanx could reject a commander’s orders collectively Mixed classes To be in the phalanx had to have the same property/wealth has a fully-participating citizen in the polis o Lower-status men were support to the phalanx Archaic Greece and the Polis Governing o All citizens came together to vote/rule Vocal skills greatly values because that was the only way to get your point across o Justice became a founding value Intense philosophical investigations Aristotle’s Politics Polis is the natural way o Perfectly self-sufficient o Came from human nature o Derived from natural union (man + woman, etc.) o More pragmatic than anything else The whole most precede the parts People living outside of a polis aren’t human o They have no moral anchor Different between man and beast o Language o Justice Person living in the polis, as they should, are the best, other are the worst Athens After the Dark Ages, run by oligarchy, few wealthy families, poor were serfs o Wealthy families didn’t like each other, which led to horrible violence Draco, 621 BC o Created very dark law codes to help stop the violence that was being created by the rich families o Replaced retribution laws with clean, clear written law o Written justice over the clans controls o Didn’t work for very long Solon, c. 630-560 BC o Chosen in 594 BC to change government o Social problems needed to be fixed Abolished debt bondage, establishing free peasants o His political reform was more social Wanted all citizens to become more involved; hated indifference Lasted longer than Draco’s governing plan but still didn’t last long
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