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History 101, Week 2

by: Caroline Crews

History 101, Week 2 HY 101

Caroline Crews

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These are notes from the 2nd week of classes.
Western Civ To 1648
Daniel Riches
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Crews on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Daniel Riches in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Western Civ To 1648 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 01/27/16
Week 2 Notes The Early Greeks Greek World in the Bronze Age  Aegean Sea  Bronze Age Cultures o Cycladic c. 2500-1900 BC  Non-military force  Island o Minoan c. 2000-1400 BC  Island of Crete  Politically unified  Very similar to the Near East: kings, centralized government, religion and politics were combined (like Egypt), bureaucratic  Little military  Greater equality for women than most cultures at this time  Pay taxes in king; government’s responsibility to collet and redistribute  For this task to be completed successfully, they had to literate (which also means they created their own alphabet) o Mycenaean c. 1600-1200 BC  Greek main land but grew to include the islands and some of Asia Minor  Military culture  Probably not politically unified  Borrowed culture from Cycladic and Minoan  Military elite governed  Demise:  Dorian invasions o Most likely a myth o Foreign military intervention  Series of natural disasters  Plugged into the main civilizations of the Near East o Very dependent on the cultures and trade from their culture o When the cultures of the Near East went into chaos, Greece could not survive Dark Ages and Aftermath  Greek “Dark Ages” c. 1200-700 BC o Consequences for isolation  Serious population decline  Sharp decline of cities  Almost complete disappearance of urban culture; rise of rural culture  Disappearance of large scale governments  Tiny chiefdoms, 2 or 3 towns in total  Very little trade with anyone  Very large decline in culture  The Greeks return to being illiterate  No art, went backwards o Advantages of isolation  Forced an independence  Created a cultural unity  Role of Geography in Greek Development o Water  The Aegean Sea made it very accessible to influence  Connection to the Near East and developing west o Predisposed to smaller localized government o Waterways made it easy to communicate with different tribes and cultures  Rivers, streams, and ocean made it easy and quick to travel o Agriculture  Hard to grow food; the communication help share/trade foods  Social Organizations o Male-oriented o Slave society o Basic social unit was the household  Eight Contrary Renaissance of “Age of Revolution c. 750-650 BC o Renewal of trade contacts in the East o Development of new arts  Stereotypical Greek art and architecture  Development of mythology and epic poems  Greek Gods very fluid  Homer o Probably not a singular person, although the Greeks believed he was one person o Most likely a group of people who started the epic poems o Odyssey and Iliad products of the Dark Ages  These tales were very nostalgic of what it was like in the Bronze Age  Belief in individualism, glory o Were obsessed with people and psychology o Rise of PanHellenic religions shrines and temples and festivals o Rise of the Olympic Games o Connection brought cultural unity o Rise in population was great; consequences:  Return of urban living  Encouragement to trade with Near East  Greater division of labor  Rise of wealthy land owners  Creation of leisure class  To think, create, and govern were their main responsibilities  Colonizing, even across the Mediterranean  Bringing with them their culture, language, etc. The Greek Polis Rise of the Polis  Polis o City-state: self-governing, political unit o Started as the small villages in Dark Ages o Citadels were built; fortresses used for refuge  Geographic reasons for placement  Had shrines to their patron God/Goddess  Economic functions: became a marketplace o Shares a sense of common identity o Majority of “citizens” lived outside the polis o Size of a normal county  Athens o Very densely populated  Most citizens did have political power  Number of men was around 40,00 at height  Rise of aristocracy and wealthy merchant class o Rejected the older form of government from the Dark Ages  Changing military organization o Hoplites  Militia; citizen soldiers  Phalanx  No individualism, teamwork, mutual trust, great sacrifice  Later, there would be a rule stating that the body of the phalanx could reject a commander’s orders collectively  Mixed classes  To be in the phalanx had to have the same property/wealth has a fully-participating citizen in the polis o Lower-status men were support to the phalanx Archaic Greece and the Polis  Governing o All citizens came together to vote/rule  Vocal skills greatly values because that was the only way to get your point across o Justice became a founding value  Intense philosophical investigations Aristotle’s Politics  Polis is the natural way o Perfectly self-sufficient o Came from human nature o Derived from natural union (man + woman, etc.) o More pragmatic than anything else  The whole most precede the parts  People living outside of a polis aren’t human o They have no moral anchor  Different between man and beast o Language o Justice  Person living in the polis, as they should, are the best, other are the worst Athens  After the Dark Ages, run by oligarchy, few wealthy families, poor were serfs o Wealthy families didn’t like each other, which led to horrible violence  Draco, 621 BC o Created very dark law codes to help stop the violence that was being created by the rich families o Replaced retribution laws with clean, clear written law o Written justice over the clans controls o Didn’t work for very long  Solon, c. 630-560 BC o Chosen in 594 BC to change government o Social problems needed to be fixed  Abolished debt bondage, establishing free peasants o His political reform was more social  Wanted all citizens to become more involved; hated indifference  Lasted longer than Draco’s governing plan but still didn’t last long


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