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US History Week One Notes

by: Kenzie Busick

US History Week One Notes History 151

Marketplace > Colorado State University > History > History 151 > US History Week One Notes
Kenzie Busick
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

Notes regarding the causes, effects, and reconstruction of the Civil War.
Clara Keyt
Class Notes
history, civil war, US History, Reconstruction, Lincoln, slaves
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenzie Busick on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 151 at Colorado State University taught by Clara Keyt in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see 151 in History at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 01/27/16
01/25/2016 ▯ US History Week 1 ▯ ▯ Causes of the Civil War: 1. tensions between one-crop and diversified economies 2. rights vs federalism (is the president representing the North/South fairly?) 3. Admission of New States to the Union 4. Abolitionist movement 5. Lincoln-Douglas debates- election of Lincoln ▯ Slavery and Cotton Industry  ownership of slaves limited to those who could afford them  slavery was the Nation’s top industry o more valuable than cotton o 1820-1861  most of the North middle class had to pay for labor -> created tension  Congress and the president represented the North or the cotton kingdom  Cotton culture became dominant economy o Three-legged-stool: land, slaves, cotton production  New states into the union should be free or slave state? o 13 colonies wanted coast to coast control o some compromises were made  #1 state that caused southerners the most trouble was Utah o Mormons and polygamy o Believed the federal government had no right to interfere ▯ Three cycles of reform  Begins in the 1820s- reform individual behavior o Gamble, drink, sexual misconduct  Begins in the 1830s- reforming institutions o Response to crime and poverty  Begins in the 1840s- rejected standard social beliefs about gender and race o Women’s rights, anti-slavery, abolition  Anti-slavery: holding nation compete against Europe’s economy  Abolition: morality with rights, should be citizens with equal rights ▯ Lincoln’s Election  Debates with Douglas o Bold proclamations exist against slavery= should it be allowed in the west or not? o 3% of politics were controlled in the South o Douglas calls Lincoln a radical because of his views on slavery  Debates lead to Lincoln’s election o Douglas did popular sovereignty (doing what your constituents want you to do)  Douglas believes the state should decide what it wants to do with slavery o Lincoln believed in moral and economic issues  Good vs evil  Holding up modernization of the North o Lincoln would tell his followers to read his old speeches rather than repeat himself but this presented a problem because a lot of citizens in the South couldn’t read and North could o Lincoln wins the debate ▯ Lincoln is elected  Kicks off the civil war  View sectionallity (North vs South)  Politics related to geography  States began to succeed (30 year process) ▯ Human cost of war  1 in 10 Unionist dead  1 in 4 Southerners dead  350,000 southerners dead  400,000 physically/mentally disabled o creates a generation gap-> prevented recovery until WW2 ▯ Economic costs of war (South)  1/3 livestock  1/2 farm equipment  2/3 loss of railroad tracks  significance o agrarian economy o reliance on cotton-credit (large reason the south couldn’t recover) o lack of capital to rebuild o no shipping system, ports, bridges ▯ Economic costs of war (North)  Had primary manufacturing, war was fought in the South, wealth increased 50% ▯ Environmental costs of war  Soil, surface water, and aquifers polluted  Non-potable water  Game animals gone  Rapid spread of disease led to many deaths  Deforestation -> tremendous erosion ▯ Major player in reconstruction of South  Freed people  North= republican congress, Lincoln  South= white democrats, Johnson ▯ Reconstruction  Issues o Constitutional issues- position of confederate states and position of defeated white US citizens with constitutional rights th o Racial issues- define the 13 amendment freedom vs equality and Black Men’s citizenship (should it be the same as white men or women) o Social issues- legality of pre-war black marriages/interracial partnerships, education, social and recreational venues o Economic issues- wage work for black men, paying for work they had done as slaves, and property (grant land, purchases, homesteading rights, plantation) ▯ After Lincoln’s assassination  Andrew Johnson is president  Reconstruction was a huge mess  Freed black men were in more danger than ever  Reconstruction-> stimulus for current racial issues  Johnson (not well respected, didn’t go to school, continue to implement Lincolns plan which led to tension between Johnson and congress) ▯ Johnson vs Congress  Johnsons plan o Pardoned everyone who took oath of allegiance o Require leader/men of wealth to obtain special presidential pardons o States impose pre-war “black codes” (restrictions) to former slaves and keep wartime leaders in office  Congress’s plan o Cant keep the same restrictions to African americans/freed slaves o If you want representatives in congress you have to…  Give citizenship to people born in the US  Disassemble the pass system (pass a slave has to have in order to leave the plantation)  No confederate leaders/military officers can hold congressional office ▯ Impeach Johnson  Bad policy to impeach someone because they didn’t agree with policies  Draws lines with Republicans and Democrats Interpreting freedom  Emanication proclamation  Family is central element for freed slaves o Cop with losses o Locating lost family members was the most critical part of freedom for freed slaves  3000/5000 schools in South for blacks  dangerous to be a black person by yourself  Oregon passed law that prohibited black to enter the state Pan-Africanism  Black songs with code words o Showed their humanity to the whites  Ring shout o White slave owners banned it and was punishable by death o Represent an open expression of specific African American Christianity o Platform for political activity Share cropping  Land owner will allow freed people to use the land to plant crops and share the portion of the harvest  The idea was to share profit  Farmer could only purchase farm tools etc from the land owners, who set the prices extremely high in order to rack up debt  Becomes a new form of slavery o If you left the landowner with debt-> could be legally killed and children then had your debt Johnson  Not popular amongst anyone  Lost the election of 1868 to Ulysses S Grant (Union general) o Presidency was from 1868-1877 ▯ Reasons reconstruction ended  Institutional discrimination  Uncontrolled violence o KKK act/third force act- violating American rights to have para-military groups o 48 politicians are murdered year before reconstruct.  Democrats take control  Depression Successes & Failures of reconstruction  Successes o Amendments th  13 - no involuntary solitude  14 - citizenship  15 - all males can vote  black cultures and communities flourishing  universal education in the south  prior to this education was a luxury  federalism vs states rights  Failures o Institutionalized discrimination: Black codes o Nullified amendments o Share cropping system o Vigilante-style racial violence


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