Class Note for ECOL 482 at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
EUTELEOSTEI OSTARIOPHYSI PROTACANTHOPPTERYGII NEOTELEOSTS NEOTELEOSTS Stenopterygii Cyclosquamata Scopelomorpha ACANTHOMORPHA ACANTHOMORPHA Lampridiomorpha Polymixiomorpha Paracanthopterygii ACANTHOPTERYGII ACANTHOPTERYGII Mugilomorpha mullets Atherinomorpha silversides Percomorpha Neoteleostei Superorder Stenopterygii Order Stomiifurmes dragon sh hatchetfish 321 spp including light shes marine hatchet shes Mostly weird deepsea forms Order Ateleopodiformes Jellynose shes Sup erorder C yclosquamata Order Aulopifurmes deep sea dwellers 220 species lizard sh telescope sh Superorder Scopelomorpha Order Myctophiformes Blackchins amp Lantern shes 65 all mesopelagic sh Acanthomorpha Superorder Lampridiomorpha Order Lampridifurmes opahs crest sh ribbon sh oar sh Deepsea shes Sup erorder Pol ymixiom orpha Order Polymixiiformes Beard sh Superorder Paracanthop terygii Order Percopsiformes Troutperch pirate perch anus below head cave shes Order Ophidiiformes Cuskeels Order Gadiformes Cod shes Order Batrachoidiformes Toad shes Order Lophiiformes Angler shes Frog shes Bat shes Goose shes SuperorderAcanthopterygii SuperorderAcanthopterygii Mugilomorpha Order Mugiliformes Mullets Atherinomorpha Order Atheriniformes Silversides and rainbowfishes Order Beloniformes Needlefish Halfbeaks and Flyingfishes Order Cyprinodontiformes Killifishesplays swordtails ricefishes Medaka Series Percomorpha Order Stephanoberciformes Pricklefish whalefish Order Bercyformes Squirrelfishes redfishes Pineapple fishes flashlight fishes Roughies Spiny fins Fangtooths Order Zeiformes Dories Oreos Order Gasterosteiformes Pipefish and seahorses sticklebacks Order Synbranchiformes Swampeels Order Scorpaeniform es Scorpian sh Order Perciformes Many many Order Pleuronectiformes Flounders and soles Order Tetraodontiformes Triggers and puf fers etc Neoteleosts Neoteleosts Emergence of a Pharyngeal Retractor Muscle seven super orders are recognized Anterior end Dorsal gill arch elements pharyngobranchials and posterior enld first to sixteenth elements Connects pharyngeal jaws w vertebral co umn Also changed way vertebral column connects to skull three bones basi and two exoccipitals versus basioccipital only primitive Other characters include a medial rostral cartilage between premaxillae and neurocrania amp some muscles Will not bore you With Seven Super Orders Super order groups 1 Stenopterygii Stomiiforms and Ateleopodidae jellynose fish weird deep water swim just above bottom Seven Super Orders Stomiiformes deepsea mesopelagic and bathypelagic w luminescent organs photophores present include the lightfishes or bristlemouths including Cyclothone 2003 MBARI greatest abundance of individuals of any fish genus in the world Marine Hatchetfish Viper fishes dragon fishes snaggletooths Stomiiformes 4families w 321 species Gonostomatidae bristlemouths Phosichthyidae light shes Sternoptychidae marine hatchet shes and Stomiidae dragon shes and relatives 1985 Bill Fink combined 230 or so species of quotbarbeled stomiiformsquot previously recognized in six families into one large family the Stomiidae Seven Super Orders 2 AULOPIFORMES Cyclosquamata pelagic amp bathypelagic many synchronous hermaphrodites 4 Suborders 12 families 42 genera w about 200 species greeneyes pearleyes waryfishes Lizard fishes Tripod 7 fishes elongate pectoral pelvic and caudal rays to sit on bottom All fishes above Cyclosquamata lost fifth pharyngeal tooth plate Seven Super Orders 3 Myctophiformes Scopelomorpha with 2 families 35 r genera amp about 241 species lanternfishes B th t 39 lost tooth plate but Jam still have cycloid scales versus ctenoid inns Lepidophanes guentheri Seven Super Orders Super order groups Now we get the ACANTHOMORPHA True fin spines rather than hardened rays in dorsal anal and pelvic fins Spiny rayed teleosts other changes include the maxilla pharyngeal teeth diversi ed etc Seven Super Ordersquot ACANTHOMORPHA 4 Lampridiomorpha open water oceanic include opahs and oar sh one can OpahrLampnsguttatus enlarge its mouth volume 40 fold during feeding notrue M spines maxilla helps premax has no teeth Oamsh r Regsecu gesne Seven Super Ordersquot ACANTHOMORPHA 5 Polymixiomorpha beard shes unsure of exact phylogenetic position mixed combination of characteristics Seven Super Orders 6 Paracanthopterygii major side branch Marine benthic and nocturnal fishes Defined caudal skeleton and holes in skull About 1200 species only 20 primitive are freshwater Percopsiformes Troutperch most advanced w adipose fin and blind scaleless cave fish amblyopsid Seven Super Orders 6 Paracanthopterygii Ophidiiformes Pearlfish and cusk eels some live inside body cavities and are parasitic two distinct larval stages Seven Super Orders 6 Paracanthopterygii Gadiformes Cods hake etc some of most important commercial shes in V the world largest food shery in world is for Paci c walleye Pollock r gt 6 million tons in 1989 39 6 Paracanthopterygii Batrachoidiformes Toad sh some venomous convergent with scorpion sh Lots of acoustics and midshipmen lateral photophores and very vocal during breeding houseboats complain auditory scene analysis Seven Super Orders 6 Paracanthopterygii Lophiiformes anglerfishes Goosefish amp frogfish esca or lure used to mimic small fish and batfish very strange morphologically 150 plus species and males small and are parasitic on females Seven Super Orders 7 Superorder Acanthopterygii 13500 species in 251 families a Ascending process of premaxilla b Pharyngeal dentition and action great retractor dorsalis now inserts on 3rd pharyngobranchial arch and upper pharyngeal jaws supported by 2nd and 3rd epibranchials Typically ctenoid scales physoclistous gas bladder no maxilla in gape two distinct dorsal fins spiny and soft pelvic and anal ns with spines externally symmetric tail Seven Super Orders 7 Superorder Acanthopterygii Three Series 1 Mugilomorpha mullets 66 species economically important leap from water Seven Super Orders 7 Superorder Acanthopterygii 3 Series 2 Atherinomorpha Surface of water a Atheriniformes silversides rainbow fish 285 spp b Beloniformes needlefishes flying fishes include Medakas ricefish Oryzias used in labs first to have sex in space and c Cyprinodontiformes Poeciliids mollies guppies swordtails Killifish pupfish etc igth salt tolerant and extreme environments Annual aplocheilid rivulines Rivuus marrnoratus onl self fertilizing fish Anablepid four eye fis Species flock of Orestias in Lake Titicaca 4570 m 10 Seven Super Orders 7 Superorder Acanthopterygii 13500 species in 251 families 3 Percomorpha 12000 species with anteriorly placed pelvic girdle that is connected to the pectoral girdle directly or by a ligament pelvic fin w anterior spine and usually five soft rays Percomorpha Defined Anteriorly placed pelvic girdle connected to pectoral directly or by ligament not well de ined group Basal Orders Stephanoberyciforms gibberfishes amp whalefish Bericiformes orange roughy amp squirrelfishes Zeiforms John dories Gasterosteiforms dermal armour plates small mouths sticklebacks Syngnathoidei sea horses Sea moths pipefish sea dragons only verts where males become pre nant also trumpetfish amp cornet fish and shrimpfish hea down in urchins Synbranchiforms Swamp Eels palatoquadrate attaches at two points on skull amphystilic suspension Scorpaniformes scorpionfish and rockfish only freshwater sculpins 11 Percomorpha Order Perciformes 148 families and 9300 species Suborder Percoidei many families 71 families with 2860 species Centropomids snooks barramundi Nile Perch etc Serranidae sea basses 450 species 3 spines on opercle 3 subfamilies inc mamlets groupers soapfish etc Many are hermaphrodites start female become male PROTOGYNY Centrarchidae 29 spp Sunfishes crappies rockbasses and basses Grammatidae basslets Perciclae yellow perch and walleye and darters 162 species Cardinal fish Apogonids 320 spp Nocturnal reef fish w big eyes Tilefishes Malacanthids marine burroughs move shells rocks w mouth Nematistiiclae remoras first dorsal fin modified as sucking organ sometimes combined w next four as carangoids PERCOMORPHA Cobia monotypic looks like ramora but no disk o en w manta rays Dolphin shes dorado 2pp sexual dimorphism in skulls Jacks Carangids 140 species of predators good swimmers carangiform locomotion Lutjanids snappers 125 spp Lobotid tripletails dorsal anal and caudal ns Gerreidae mojarras common inshore Haemulidae grunts coral reef pork sh Sparidae Porgies Polynemid thread ns Sciaenid Croakers 270 speciesinc Inc Totoaba sound production amp large otoliths and extensive lateral lines Mullid goat shes Monodactylilid nger shes Toxotid Archer shes shoot water eyes submerged Chaetodontidae butter y fishes 114 species Pomacanthidae Angle shes Kyphosids sea chubs 42 sp Nanid Leaf sh Cirrhitid hawk shes 12 PERCOMORPHA Suborder Elassomatids pygmy sunfish convergence w true sunfishes Suborder LABROIDEI species flocks and explosive speciation Cichlidae Pomacentridae Labridae Scaridae Embiotocidae amp Odacids Suborder Zoarcoidei eelpouts wolffishes wolf eels gunnels Suborder Nototheniodei icefishes glycoprotein antifreeze Suborder Trachinoidei stargazers sand divers sand lances weeverfishes venomous w stargazers Suborder lcosteoidei Gobiesocoidei Callionymoidei ragfish clingfish Dragonet popular aquarium Suborder Blennioidei Blennies Suborder Gobioidei Gobies PERCOMORPHA Suborder Kurtoidei Kurtids males care eggs w attachment to supraoccipital crest Suborder Acanthuroidei Acanthurids 72 spp rabbitfishes spadefishes Louvar female w 50 million eggs Moorish ldol Suborder Scombrolabracoidei weird gas bladder that has projections monotypic Suborder Scombroidei Mackerels tunas Barracudas cutlass fishes Xiphiid swordfish and istiophorid sailfish spearfish and marlins Suborder Stromateoidei medusafishes squaretails driftfishes butterfishes Suborder Anabantoidei labyrinth fishes auxiliary breathing structure Suborder Channoidei snakeheads 13 PERCOMORPHA Order Pleuronectiformes pelagic symmetric larvae metamorphose into adults that lie on bottom Soles usually right eyed flounders halibut righteye flounder tonguefishes Order Tetradontiformes triggerfish filefishes boxfishes puffers Mola Ocean Sunfishes lots of cartilage in skull up to 1000 lbs 14
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