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COM 240: Week 1 Notes

by: Kayla Notetaker

COM 240: Week 1 Notes COM 240

Kayla Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes cover week one of COM 240 notes.
Mass Media of Communications
Ivan B. Dylko
Class Notes
COM 240, week 1




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Notetaker on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COM 240 at University at Buffalo taught by Ivan B. Dylko in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Mass Media of Communications in Communication at University at Buffalo.

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Date Created: 01/27/16
Notes: January 28, 2016     Chapter 1: Mass Communication and its Digital Transformation     → Communication Theories  ● Defining Communication: Communication is not Communications ​   ● Communications is short for telecommunications   ● transmission of information through some technology.  ● Communications is a creation of shared meaning that can be:  1. Verbal and/or nonverbal (gestures)  2. intentional and/or unintentional (facials, the way we dress)  3. a process and/or behavior  4. public and/or private  → ​Simplified Model of Communication          Examples: Noise­ talking on the phone in a public place.  Encoding: Formulating a plan.  Decoding: Making things more clear when explaining.                         Communication Sub­Fields  → socio­psychological   ­Communication “science” is generally associated with this sub­field   ­Sample questions investigated which is more effective in informing people about  politics TV or newspaper? why?   What sort of message is more persuasive? why?  →  ​Carl Hovland’s experimental Research​  on a persuasive effect of effects of  communication was very important.  The research took place during WWII and was funded by US government what she  needed to make US soldiers want to fight the war.   → ​Cybernetic  aka artificial intelligence   important concept of feedback was introduced during WWII as part of research on  improving accuracy of weapons.    Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication:              →R​hetorical: ​originated in ancient Greek city­states  ­ Main Assumptions:  public speech is the most effective way to govern and solve  political problems.    ­public speaking is essentially a one way communication    ­public speaking is an art rather than science.    concerned with using emotion to influence people.    → ​Critical: originated in “Frankfurt School”   ­ Concerned primarily with unjust distribution of suffering and power in society:  ­  Language can be used unjustly to make groups less powerful in society  ­  Media perpetuate status quo and keep masses from realizing and doing  something about  the degree of injustice in society.   ­  Empirical research is often used to maintain status quo.     → Mass Communication and its functions  ● Media of mass communication​ ­ any technology for communicating between  large numbers of people distributed widely over space or time.   ­Function 1:   surveillance:​ providing accurate information about processes, issues, and  events in society.   One problem: There is too much emphasis on negative and rare events, which  skews public perception of reality.  Example:​  Most news stories are negative to catch our attention. Things like  plane crashes, shark attacks, and buying winning lottery tickets appear more  common than they actually are.     ­Function 2:   Correlation: ​informing public about what others think, helping individuals  understand their role in society.     ­Function 3:   Cultural Transmission​ : transfer dominant culture (and its subcultures) to  younger generation and to immigrants by describing norms and rules.   One problem: It diminishes appreciation of cultural diversity.   ­Function 4:   Entertainment: ​ production of content solely for information. (Jerry Springer)  Problem #1: emphasis on low­ brow entertainment at the expense of fine art.   Problem #2: unintentional development of various attitudes negatively impacting  politics (stereotyping various ethnic and social groups), health (glamorizing risky  unprotected sex), crime (frequent use of graphic violence) and other aspects of  social and personal life (movies, tv shows, advertisements).   *For example, comedy you don’t think while you’re watching it, you just absorb it  and it influences you more than you think!    → ​Convergence (Three Types)  Definition: important simultaneous transformations of computing  telecommunications and media.  ● is still ongoing  ● its nature impacts are still poorly understood  ● 3 types of convergence conceptually overlap with one another.    A. Technological Convergence  ● Drastic changes in communication technology:  ­Transitional media (print, radio, video) are becoming digital and similar.  Example: Radio station’s website often features videos and text. Print papers  website now has video, podcasts and multimedia.   ­Kindle:   ● Features:  ­ holds many books  ­having many books allows one to cross­ reference information and switch  back and forth between books.  Features of kindle continued:  ­change text size  ­notion of page number goes away  ­share bookmarks and read collaboratively  ­make it easier to look up a word, annotate sections and purchase or  download new books on the spot.    B. ​conomic Convergence  ● Definition: Merger of traditional companies.   Ex. NBC Universal with internet or telecommunication companies. (Ex. AOL)  ­This allows merged companies to help each other.   internet provider can help its content provider sister company by slowing down/  blocking access to competitor’s content.  Time magazine and CNN’s Larry King Live heavily promoted movie, ​ Eyes Wide Shut​ ,  created by their sister company, Warner Brothers.     C. ​ultural Convergence  ● Various cultures become more similar in their values, beliefs and practices as a  result of exposure to the same social media content.  → Example of convergence: Telephone  ●  When first developed telephones were not considered useful for interpersonal  communication.  ­ too expensive  ­ too few people connected to network  ­ often used as “radio”  ● Rich users paid fees to listen to music performances   ●  some people listen to sermons  ●  In the U.S. many phone companies competed and had incompatible  standards.  This made it difficult for technology to be adopted widely. Then  U.S. government granted monopoly on telephone system to AT&T.  → Today's phones are used more like computers!  ●  Video chat, online banking, playing games, doing work, social media, etc.             


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