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General Bio/ EBIO 1200- week 4- Animal Diversity

by: Evan Gallagher

General Bio/ EBIO 1200- week 4- Animal Diversity EBIO 1220

Marketplace > University of Colorado > Science > EBIO 1220 > General Bio EBIO 1200 week 4 Animal Diversity
Evan Gallagher
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Fourth week of notes for General biology 2, or EBIO 1200. Topics discussed include the end of prokaryotic discussions and the beginning of animal diversity.
General Biology 2
Dr. Carol Kearns
Class Notes
EBIO 1200, general biology, notes, week 4




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Evan Gallagher on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1220 at University of Colorado taught by Dr. Carol Kearns in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see General Biology 2 in Science at University of Colorado.


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Date Created: 01/27/16
Bio notes 1/29­ 2/5 Animal diversity  1/29 evidence for endosymbiosis ­ Presence of single loop of DNA in some organelles  ­ double membrane around some organelles  ­ presence of modern day endosymbiotic relationships ­ Binary Fission of chloroplasts and mitochondria  ­ presence of ribosomes within chloroplast and mitochondria ­ eRNA is similar ro bacteria  Protists have considerably larger cells than prokaryotes. Compartmentalization, internal  membranes that increase surface area, and the evolution if specialized structures help  to overcome problems of surface area to volume ratio. Even so, there is probably a limit  to cell size. Multicellularity Avoid surface area: volume ratio problems  Specialization of parts advantages  Less chance of being entirely eaten  Review General features of protists: ­ Eukaryotic  ­ cell membrane  ­ often complex cells with specific strictures ­ cytoskeleton  ­ reproduce by mitosis  ­ sexual reproduction by meiosis ­ variation in life cycles ­ aerobic  ­ most, but not all are unicellular  Ecological features ­ Require moisture ­ important in nutrient cycling ­ important in primary productivity  ­ free living, epizootic and endoparasitic forms exists  Trypanosomes Trypanosomes that cause african sleeping sickness; transmitted by tsetse fly. Effects  central nervous system Leishmaniasis parasite transmitted by sand flies in tropical areas. Affects lymphatic  system and causes skin lesions  Diatoms Diatoms are responsible for 31% of the ocean’s primary productivity. They have a 2­part silica shell. The shells are very strong and persist long after the organism dies. People  use the shells for many things like cat litter, insulators and filters in pools Dinoflagellates “Whirling” flagellates with two flagella 28% of the oceans primary productivity. Auto  troops and heterotrophs.  Many of these are Bioluminescent  Plates of silica and cellulose surround the living cell some have a complex eyespot and lens which can focus on prey  Chapter 27: Introduction to animal diversity: Choanoflagellate­ Unicellular and colonial organisms; related to animals­ possibly uniellilat  ancestor of animals.  Choanoflagellate cells are found in sponges. Similar cells are found in cnidarians, flatworms,  and echinoderms  DNA sequences indicate that choanoflagellate and animals are sister groups Endoderm­ inner lining of digestive tract, respiratory tract and lungs, liver pancreas  ectoderm ­ outermost layers, nervous systems  mesoderm ­ muscle, bone, reproductive organs, kidneys, circulatory system. df Body layouts radial symmetry: the body is circular and can be cut down the middle at any point and it  would be the same on both sides Bilateral symmetry: Can be cut down the center at one point and will be the same on  both sides  Advantages of an internal, fluid filled body cavity: cushion organs hydrostatic skeleton allows for enlargement of organs stores waste stores gametes simple circulatory system 2/3- Most animals have bilateral symmetry the bast majority of animal species belong to the clade bilateria which consists of  animals wit h bilateral symmetry and triploblastic development  2/5 Echinoderms • sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers, sea lilies  • most Echinoderms are slow moving or sessile marine animals with a bumpy or spiny  skin covering a hard calcareous endoskeleton  • echinoderms have a unique water vascular system, a network of water filled tubes  branching into tube feet that function for locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange 


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