BIOL 120 Genetics- DNA Notes
BIOL 120 Genetics- DNA Notes BIOL 120
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angela Potter on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 120 at Towson University taught by Christa. Partain in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Hierarchy of genetic information Traits: an inherited characteristic controlled by genes found on DNA Chromosomes Structural unit containing part or all of an organisms genome consisting of DNA and its associated proteins Pairs • One of the pair is inherited from dad and one from mom, in sexually reproducing organisms. • These pairs are called homologous pairs. Karyotype • A pictorial arrangement of a full set of an organism’s chromosomes. • In humans, there are 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes Chromatids • One of the two identical strands of chromatin or half of a replicated chromosome. Genes • A segment of a chromosome that carries specific information about a trait. • A gene contains information about anything your body needs • Sometimes genes carry mutations that cause disease or changes in traits. Genes • Instructions carried by DNA. The instructions are for building all of the proteins that cells require. DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid – the information molecule that is stored in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells. Composed of nucleotides Nucleotides have three parts: a phosphate a sugar (deoxyribose for DNA nucleotides) one of four bases: Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) DNA Structure Complementary Bases • There is a specific pattern of the bases that connect the two strands. • These are called complementary base pairs and are like the steps of a spiral staircase – A always bonds across from T – C always bonds across from G Complementary Bases • Because of this, if one strand of DNA is known, the other strand can be deciphered. • If we know that one strand of DNA has the sequence: A CGGC T A • The other side must be: TAGCCGT Sugar-phosphate backbone • The other parts of the nucleotides – the sugars & phosphates – are connected end to end to form a structure that is like the hand rail of a spiral staircase. • Just like your backbone, the sugar-phosphate backbone supports and gives shape to the DNA molecule. ▯ Chromosome • a long single molecule of DNA and associated proteins, • housed in the nucleus, • can carry hundreds of genes along its length • Each cell has a complete set of chromosomes. * All genes are present ▯ DNA Manages Information • DNA stores information • DNA duplicates information when needed • DNA transfers and decodes information when needed Proteins Synthesis Importance of Proteins • Life’s diversity can be traced to differences in the kinds and arrangements of protein molecules. • Proteins do the daily business of living, giving cells their shapes and unique abilities. • In our cells, proteins are the workforce; they get everything done. Proteins break down our food to release energy. Proteins organize the transport of useful chemicals between cells. Often, these useful chemicals are themselves proteins. • As well as doing things, proteins are the building blocks for most of your body. In the same way that a wall is made mostly of bricks, your body is made mostly of protein. ▯
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