BIOL 120 Genetics- Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Cancer Notes
BIOL 120 Genetics- Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Cancer Notes BIOL 120
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angela Potter on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 120 at Towson University taught by Christa. Partain in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
BIOL 120 Genetics-Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Cancer • Somatic Cells - body cells - mitosis - for growth/repair - makes identical copies • Germ Cells - sex cells - meiosis - to make gametes (egg/sperm) - makes unique cells - ½ chromosomes # * one of each type of chromosome ▯ Overview of Cell Division (somatic Cell) 1.Replication: DNA is duplicated 2.Mitosis: The two quantities of DNA are moved to opposite sides of the parent cell 3. Cytokinesis: The parent cell splits into two daughter cells The Cell Cycle 1. Interphase: DNA is copied 2. Mitosis: DNA split equally into two daughter cells 3. Cytokinesis: Parent Cell is cleaved in half Uncondensed/Condensed During Interphase, the chromosomes are uncondensed or usable. ▯ During M Phase (Mitosis), the chromosomes are condensed or movable. ▯ Chromosomes and DNA Replication Chromatin – a mass of genetic material composed of DNA and proteins that condense to form chromosomes. Chromatid – one of the two identical copies of DNA making up a duplicated chromosome, which are joined at their centromeres. ▯ DNA Replication Precedes cell division. ▯ A) The double-stranded DNA molecule is copied – first by splitting the molecule in half up the middle of the helix. New nucleotides are added to each side of the original parent molecule.Results in the production of 2 identical daughter DNA molecules from 1 parent molecule. Each daughter DNA molecule contains half of the parental DNA and half of the newly synthesized DNA. ▯ B) The DNA polymerase enzyme moves along the unwound helix, tying together adjacent nucleotides on the daughter DNA strand. ▯ The cell is now ready to divide. ▯ Variations • Brain and nerve cells form in the embryo and then never divide. • Many leaf cells: divide as young leaves, stop dividing and simple increase in size by growing • Bone marrow cells: divide rapidly; forming as many as 20,000 new cells per minute. Cancer • Two part failure in the cell cycle Summary of Cancer • Uncontrolled cell division • Suppressor genes are unable to turn off growth, repair DNA, or cause cell suicide • Metastasis causes cells to migrate • They are immortal ▯ Detecting Cancer • Risk factors: chemical, sun exposure, nutrition & health, age • Genetic testing: looking for mutations • Detecting chemicals in the blood: certain cancer cells secrete proteins that are detectable in the blood • Biopsy: take a portion of tumor and examine the cells Treating Cancer • Chemotherapy: highly toxic chemicals that will kill cells • Cancer cells become resistant at 1 cell per million. Average tumor contains 1 billion cells, so ~1,000 are resistant • Radiation therapy: high energy radiation pointed at tumor cells will destroy DNA, therefore destroying the cell The Immune System’s role in Cancer • Cancer cells can sometimes be recognized by the immune system and T-cells can mount at attack and destroy cancerous cells. • Immune system may become less effective at finding and destroying cancer cells as we age. • Cancer cells are part of the body and sometimes do not cause a strong immune response. • Many tumors secrete substances that suppress the immune system. Caution - Signs of Cancer - See Your Doctor • Change in bowel or bladder habits • A sore that does not heal • Unusual bleeding or discharge • Thickening or lump • Indigestion or difficulty swallowing • Obvious change in wart or mole • Nagging cough or hoarseness ▯
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