Intro. Zoology Ch. 2 notes
Intro. Zoology Ch. 2 notes BIOL 1114, 001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Chapter 2 lecture: Atoms make up all matter: element (atom): proton + neutron + electron (protons/neutron inside the core) charges: electrons=negative; protons=positive opposites attract protons + neutrons = atomic number Isotopes: same element with different number of neutrons Atomic weight is the average mass of all isotopes of an element Periodic table: grouping of all elements organized by mass and characteristics atomic number, symbol, atomic weight Chemistry of relationships: what type of relationship do elements like to be in? Molecules= atoms + atoms (bonds) A chemical bond is formed when electrons fill in their valence electrons (energy shells) 288 configuration (2 electrons on first shell, 8 on second, 8 on outer) # protons determine # electrons determine # shells Full outer shell = max stability (outer shells have no vacancies) Relationships: covalent bonds: strongest; share electrons Some covalent bonds, called double bonds, share 4 electrons between atoms Polarity: unequal sharing of electrons Extent of sharing: equal sharing nonpolar; unequal sharing polar Polarity: partial positive and partial negative ends Hydrogen bonds: polarity gives rise to H bonds partial pos attract to partial neg Water contains both covalent and H bonds H bonds hold the double helix of DNA together Ex: Velcro like DNA Ionic bonds: bond between metal and nonmetal Some atoms strip the electrons from other atoms Strong on own, but weak in water Ion: atom that has gained or lost electrons Cations & anions: Cations lost electron, positive charge Anion gain electron, negative charge How do you predict what bonds will form? Electronegativity (EN) a measure of the atoms ability to attract electrons EN increases up and to the right of table Atomic radius (increases down and to the left) the larger, the less EN; the smaller, the more EN Less separation on Periodic Table = more equal sharing of electrons Greater separation on PT = more unequal sharing of electrons Even greater separation ionic bonds Difference in EN determines what type of bond: Ionic: <1.7 Nonpolar: <.4 Polar >.4 to <1.7 Why is water essential to life? Water is cohesive molecules to molecules; creates surface tension Water is adhesive molecules to other surfaces/materials Cohesive and adhesive properties allow for transpiration in plants Cohesivekeeps water together; adhesivehelps water “climb” Water does not dissolve anything hydrophobic (water fearing) nonpolar molecules; fats, wax, sand, etc How do cells use fat? Phospholipid bilayer Water can absorb temp solid, liquid, vapor Water is a good solvent (dissolves solutes); Solvent + solute = solution Dissolves hydrophilic (water loving) solutes polar solutes, ions Charged/polar molecules will interact with water; Remember that opposites attract Lastly, water participates in chemical reactions Ex: Cell respiration Acids and Bases: Acidity: concentration of H+ (0acidic; 7neutral; 14basic) High concentration of H+ = acidic (10^0); increase H+ when added to water Low concentration of H+ = basic (10^14); decrease H+ when added to water Molecules of life: Carbon based lifeforms organic molecules Four main OM 1. Carbohydrates (sugars) exmonosaccharide Monosaccharides= monomers of carbohydrates Disaccharides= 2 monomers Polysaccharides= chain of monomers (stored energy) cellulose starch glycogen 2. Amino Acids (proteins) More variable structures Structural, Contractile, Transport, Storage, Enzymes All fundamentally similar, but “R” group makes it unique “R” group is variable (Ex: glycine, cysteine, tryptophan) Making polymers with amino acids left has what right needs H+ + OH = H2O Dydration synthesis (lose water to join; mono to poly) vs. hydrolysis (add water to cut; poly to mono) *Same thing for joining/breaking carbohydrates 4 levels of structure • Primary structure: amino aicd sequence of polypeptide • Secondary structure: localized areas of coils, sheets, and loops within a polypeptide Alpha helix beta sheet • Tertiary structure: overall shape of one polypeptide • Quaternary structure: overall protein shape, arising from interaction between the multiple polypeptides What happens when we apply heat? Hydrogen bonds break (denatured protein) Hydrogen bondsadd heat (denatured) solid(covalent bonds)more heat (denatured)combust Effect of pH on proteins? Pos charge protons (H+) can denature protein too acidic▯ denature too basic▯ denature 3. Nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) nucleotides DNA▯ protein DNA (A, C, G) DNA (T) RNA (U) 4. Lipids (fats) Long chains of carbon Fat stored glycerin molecule (no monomers or polymers); Adipose tissue Saturated fats are solid at room temp (thus still solid after ingested) Unsaturated has “kinks” and liquid at room temperature whereas saturated will remain solid inside body and cause clogging. Trans fats are synthetically made to be straight, so will make food last longer (preservative) Glycerol links with chains/strings of fat through dehydration/hydrolysis Mono (single), poly (multi) Ex: chain link or train cars When we eat, stomach breaks down food from polymers to monomers so that cells can use the components of the food Monomer single unit of carbohydrate, protein, or nucleic acid; join to form polymers Sterols= lipid molecules; hydrohobic cholesterol, steroid hormones, vitamin D
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