New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Intro. Zoology Ch. 2 notes

by: Hannah Kirby

Intro. Zoology Ch. 2 notes BIOL 1114, 001

Marketplace > University of Oklahoma > BIOL 1114, 001 > Intro Zoology Ch 2 notes
Hannah Kirby
GPA 3.1
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Intro to zoology

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Intro to zoology notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

This chapter focuses on the chemistry of life.
Intro to zoology
Class Notes
zoology chemistry of life




Popular in Intro to zoology

Popular in Department

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.


Reviews for Intro. Zoology Ch. 2 notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/27/16
Chapter 2 lecture:  Atoms make up all matter: ­element (atom): proton + neutron + electron (protons/neutron inside the core) ­charges: electrons=negative; protons=positive opposites attract protons + neutrons = atomic number Isotopes: same element with different number of neutrons  Atomic weight is the average mass of all isotopes of an element Periodic table: grouping of all elements organized by mass and characteristics  ­atomic number, symbol, atomic weight Chemistry of relationships: what type of relationship do elements like to be in? Molecules= atoms + atoms (bonds) A chemical bond is formed when electrons fill in their valence electrons (energy shells) 2­8­8 configuration (2 electrons on first shell, 8 on second, 8 on outer) # protons determine # electrons  determine # shells Full outer shell = max stability (outer shells have no vacancies) Relationships: ­covalent bonds: strongest; share electrons Some covalent bonds, called double bonds, share 4 electrons between atoms  Polarity: unequal sharing of electrons  Extent of sharing: equal sharing nonpolar; unequal sharing  polar Polarity: partial positive and partial negative ends  ­Hydrogen bonds: polarity gives rise to H bonds partial pos attract to partial neg Water contains both covalent and H bonds  H bonds hold the double helix of DNA together Ex: Velcro like DNA ­Ionic bonds: bond between metal and nonmetal Some atoms strip the electrons from other atoms Strong on own, but weak in water Ion: atom that has gained or lost electrons ­Cations & anions: Cations­ lost electron, positive charge Anion­ gain electron, negative charge  How do you predict what bonds will form? Electronegativity (EN)­ a measure of the atoms ability to attract electrons  EN increases up and to the right of table Atomic radius (increases down and to the left) the larger, the less EN; the smaller, the more EN Less separation on Periodic Table = more equal sharing of electrons Greater separation on PT = more unequal sharing of electrons Even greater separation ionic bonds Difference in EN determines what type of bond: Ionic: <1.7 Nonpolar: <.4 Polar >.4 to <1.7 Why is water essential to life? Water is cohesive molecules to molecules; creates surface tension Water is adhesive molecules to other surfaces/materials Cohesive and adhesive properties allow for transpiration in plants  Cohesive­keeps water together; adhesive­helps water “climb” Water does not dissolve anything hydrophobic (water fearing) nonpolar molecules; fats, wax, sand, etc How do cells use fat? Phospholipid bilayer  Water can absorb temp­ solid, liquid, vapor Water is a good solvent (dissolves solutes); Solvent + solute = solution Dissolves hydrophilic (water loving) solutes  polar solutes, ions Charged/polar molecules will interact with water; Remember that opposites attract Lastly, water participates in chemical reactions Ex: Cell respiration Acids and Bases: Acidity: concentration of H+ (0­acidic; 7­neutral; 14­basic) High concentration of H+ = acidic (10^0); increase H+ when added to water Low concentration of H+ = basic (10^­14); decrease H+ when added to water Molecules of life:  Carbon based lifeforms organic molecules Four main OM 1. Carbohydrates (sugars) ex­monosaccharide  Monosaccharides= monomers of carbohydrates Disaccharides= 2 monomers Polysaccharides= chain of monomers (stored energy) ­cellulose ­starch ­glycogen 2. Amino Acids (proteins) More variable structures Structural, Contractile, Transport, Storage, Enzymes All fundamentally similar, but “R” group makes it unique “R” group is variable (Ex: glycine, cysteine, tryptophan) Making polymers with amino acids left has what right needs H+  +  OH­  =  H2O Dydration synthesis (lose water to join; mono to poly) vs. hydrolysis (add water to cut;  poly to mono) *Same thing for joining/breaking carbohydrates 4 levels of structure • Primary structure: amino aicd sequence of polypeptide • Secondary structure: localized areas of coils, sheets, and loops within a polypeptide ­Alpha helix ­beta sheet • Tertiary structure: overall shape of one polypeptide • Quaternary structure: overall protein shape, arising from interaction between the  multiple polypeptides What happens when we apply heat? Hydrogen bonds break (denatured protein) Hydrogen bondsadd heat (denatured) solid(covalent bonds)more heat (denatured)combust Effect of pH on proteins? Pos charge protons (H+) can denature protein ­too acidic▯ denature ­too basic▯ denature 3. Nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) ­ nucleotides DNA▯ protein DNA (A, C, G) DNA (T) RNA (U) 4. Lipids (fats) Long chains of carbon  Fat stored­ glycerin molecule (no monomers or polymers); Adipose tissue Saturated fats are solid at room temp (thus still solid after ingested) Unsaturated has “kinks” and liquid at room temperature whereas saturated will remain solid  inside body and cause clogging. Trans fats are synthetically made to be straight, so will make food last longer (preservative) Glycerol links with chains/strings of fat through dehydration/hydrolysis Mono­ (single­), poly­ (multi­) Ex: chain link or train cars When we eat, stomach breaks down food from polymers to monomers so that cells can  use the components of the food Monomer­ single unit of carbohydrate, protein, or nucleic acid; join to form polymers Sterols= lipid molecules; hydrohobic ­cholesterol, steroid hormones, vitamin D


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.