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Week 3- Rise of Big Business and The City Life

by: Asia Caldwell

Week 3- Rise of Big Business and The City Life 32763

Marketplace > East Carolina University > History > 32763 > Week 3 Rise of Big Business and The City Life
Asia Caldwell
GPA 3.68

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About this Document

These are the notes for Monday and Wednesday lecture class. Happy Studying !
History 1051
Dr. Prokopowicz
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asia Caldwell on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 32763 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Prokopowicz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see History 1051 in History at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 01/27/16
Special Url:­carolina­university/unknown/?id=132193 Monday, January 25, 2016  Small businesses begin to go large and the economy is dominated by the larger industry  ( businesses) Public Ownership Private Ownership Planned Allocation Communism­ the  Command Capitalism­  government decides  people still own, but the  everything government tells them what  they are going to do Market Allocation Market Socialism­  Market Capitalism­ prices  compromise between socialist for goods and services are set  planning and free enterprise,  freely in which enterprises are  Ex) USA publicly owned but  production and consumption  are guided by market forces   How did this happen? 1. Growth in size:  The country gets bigger, manufacturing gets bigger, population is tripled,  transportation growth (railroads develop and require new forms of  organization)  The railroad system also developed time zones 2. New Technology: th  Late 19  Century (1882) Electric power was supplied  o Thomas Edison­ Creates direct current  Light bulb   Motion Picture o Nicolai Telsa­ Develops the alternating current o Both men competed and alternating current (AC) was more efficient  Edison even encouraged the electric chair using AC  instead of traditional hanging  Oil is discovered in 1859   John D. Rockefeller  Horizontal Integration­ a strategy where a company creates production  units for outputs which are alike ­ either complementary or competitive  Ex. McDonalds buying out Burger King  Vertical Integration­ When each member of the supply chain produces a  different product or service, and the products combine to satisfy a  common need 3. Revolution in management:  The Post Office was the biggest branch known now  The owner of stores use to know everyone, and did everything for the  smaller business  With a new form of organization, the owner didn’t know the  people who worked for him  How do they respond? 1. Enjoy  Why not? American Tobacco Company allowed cigarettes to become  cheaper for smokers  Catalogs became popular for advertising 2. Deny  Pretend it’s not happening  Some people thought that it would be satisfying to see the system  didn’t change much 3. Rationalize  Applied “Survival of the fittest”  Made the argument that, “ this is what meant to happen”  Your happiness depended upon you  Social Darwinism who were successful believed in it and were fans  They also thought the government shouldn’t interfere  Critics believed it reduced human progress  They thought intelligent use of the government could help others in better ways Wednesday, January 27, 2016 4. Fight  You don’t have to accept the situation  The Great Railroad Strike of 1877  Railroad companies agreed to cut the worker’s wages so workers  couldn’t quit (10%), they would also pay regular dividend to bond  holders  State militia were called to put the workers back to work o Instead of hurting the workers, they were family and began  to help and strike too  The strike was a warning sign of a war that could happen ( it didn’t though)  The International Harvest in Chicago  Police were called in  Bomb killed police, assumed they were placed by anarchist  (radicals)  They were convicted, 4 executed  The violence turned people against the police  Homestead Strike  Pullman Strike  The Socialist Party  Eugene V. Debs  Substantial political movement The City Life  The cities were new because  of events o Chicago rebuilt itself  o San Francisco o 1860­1910 Population grew from 6 million to 44 million  NYC largest city  90% of people lived in apartment buildings in Manhattan  o Buildings were 4 to 5 stories high due to lack of elevators o Things change when electric elevators and new steel­frame construction allows  architects to extend buildings upward o These crowded tenements held disease and crime  Sanitation was a problem, which led to deaths  Toilets were invented, allowing families to no longer use out houses  Technology also allows skyscrapers to come about   Electricity becomes important in the cities o San Francisco­ famous cable cart o Arkansas City­overhead cables  Cities began to create urban parks o New York’s Central Park  It was a place for all citizens to stroll, ride bicycles, and play games o People believed that fresh air was needed   There were no limitations to what could be put into medicine  o Babies could receive morphine and not even know it  1885­ Coke was invented  1890­ people had refrigeration in their own houses o Food standardize across the country  Process foods, Quaker Oats, and corn flakes o Cook books are useful  Clothing o People not only bought through the mail, but they bought from stores   Shopping was now an exciting experience  Five and Dime Stores were next down for cheaper options  These were similar to present day Dollar Stores o Fashion changes­   Women began to wear corsets  Petticoats  People believed women clothing restricted them from doing anything  Bustle­ used to exaggerate the back of women’s dresses  The Narrow look­ narrow waist and puffed shoulders  Gibson look – Shirt waist corset type, with a hat,   Gibson Girl is a women who knows what to do, rides a bicycle, swims, works, and could dominate the male species.  Men Fashion­  Frock coats were popular but soon replaced by the suit  Men were to become more masculine, worried that they were feminine o Theodore Roosevelt­ born rich never had to do work  Gives speech about the strenuous life  Make life harder for yourself, find something to  do  Ex. Baseball becomes popular  Ex. Football is ideal for strenuous life


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