SOC101 LEC 3
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Fulton on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to soc 101 at University of Kentucky taught by Christopher Huggins in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
SOC 101 1/27/16 DATA ISSUES "Hawthorne effect"- people being aware that they're being watched or observed so their answers will not be fully valid. Experiment done when workers were observed, they work better, harder, and faster. The importance of wording and question structure Sampling properly SEASON 4 – THE WIRE TOPICS Bodies in the vacant homes the problems of the schools The "truth" of the political process Interrelatedness of social institutions Inequality: schools, CJS, and neighborhoods Culture: different social structural conditions, different cultural outcomes Politics: personal gain versus public good People: influenced by the structures and culture affecting their lives; Constraints vs. opportunities THEORIES AND PARADIGMS Theory- statements regarding how facts are related to each other and the connection between them. Ex- relative deprivation Paradigms- provide context for theories, "frame of reference". Ex- symbolic deprivation BASIC PARADIGMS/THEORETICAL APPROACHES IN SOCIOLOGY Functionalist Paradigm (Emile Durkheim) o The Functionalist paradigm describes society as stable and describes all of the various mechanisms that maintain social stability. Functionalism argues that the social structure is responsible for all stability and instability, and that that the social structure is continuously attempting to maintain social equilibrium (balance) among all of the components of society. Functionalism argues that a stable society is the best possible society and any element that helps to maintain that stability must add to the adaptability (functionality) of society. Ex. Human body, made of different things. Of we didn’t have a heart, we would die. If we didn't have an arm, life would be harder. In society it would be norms, rules, criminal justice system, etc. Levels of analysis: meso to macro View of society: like an organism Key assumptions: society is relatively stable, each part provides functions, and investigation of structure most important Conflict Paradigm (Karl Marx) o The Conflict paradigm does a very good job of explaining racism, sexism, ageism, socioeconomic inequality (wealth and poverty), etc. The Conflict paradigm describes the inequalities that exist in all societies around the globe. Conflict is particularly interested in the inequalities that exist based on all of the various aspects of master status—race or ethnicity, sex or gender, age, religion, ability or disability, and SES. SES is an abbreviation of socioeconomic status and is comprised of the combined effects of income, education, and occupation. Every society is plagued by inequality based on social differences among the dominant group and all of the other groups in society, according to the Conflict paradigm. When we are analyzing any element of society from this perspective, we need to look at the structures of wealth, power, and status and the ways in which those structures maintain the social, economic, political, and coercive power of one group at the expense of all other groups. Change: Conflict among groups, owners vs. Non-owners Level of analysis: meso to macro View of society: social inequality causes conflict that leads to social change w Key assumptions: resources are limited Social system maintained to benefit those in power Symbolic Interactionist Paradigm (W.I. Thomas) o Symbolic Interactionism describes society as small groups of individuals interacting based on the various ways that people interpret their various cultural symbols such as spoken, written, and non-verbal language. Our behavior with and among other people (our interaction) is the result of our shared understanding of cultural symbols. This is a micro-level paradigm that describes small-scale processes and small-scale social systems; it is interested in individual behavior. Ex- understanding what a stop sign means because that's what we all agree on what that sign means. Key assumptions: reality is socially constructed, no one "truth", and truth emerges from combination of subjectivities Rational choice Paradigm (Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Benthem) o Enlightenment ideas of punishment. Level of analysis: micro to meso View of humanity: calculating, rational, self-serving View of society: structure results from the practice of self-serving individuals with limited opportunities PARADIGMS: CRIME Functionalist- crime is functional Conflict- crime is the result of an unequal distribution of resources Symbolic interaction- what does crime mean to the individual? Rational Choice- people choose crime when structure constraints choices
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