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English as A Global Language Week 1 Notes

by: Courteney Feld

English as A Global Language Week 1 Notes E 323L

Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Foreign Language > E 323L > English as A Global Language Week 1 Notes
Courteney Feld
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About this Document

My personal notes from the chapter and class :)
English as a Global Language
Dr. Blockley
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courteney Feld on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to E 323L at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Blockley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see English as a Global Language in Foreign Language at University of Texas at Austin.

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Date Created: 01/27/16
English as A World Language E323L Unit A Book Notes  5.4 percent of English speakers out of world population  Majority- English is not their first language  75 territories globally where English is the first language or institutionalized, but those who speak English as their second language (L2) are more than those whose first language is English (L1)  1 diaspora- 25,000 people migration from England to North America and Australia led to new varieties of English nd  2 diaspora- colonization of Asia and Africa led to second language varieties (New Englishes)  17 C- English spread to Southern America and Caribbean due to the slave trade  English spoken among slaves = pidgin languages, which led to creoles  Dialect mixing- influenced by indigenous aboriginal languages  West Africa- slave trade, creole and pidgin  East Africa- Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi have English as official language  India’s official language is Hindi, but English is considered “associate official language”  Taiwan, Japan, Korea- English has been considered as possible official second language  English Native Language speakers (ENL)- 360 million  Kachru’s 3 way categorization model for different spread of world Englishes:  Inner Circle- English traveled from Britain to other ENL countries in 1 diaspora  Outer Circle- traveled from Britain to ESL (English Second Language) countries during 2 nddiaspora  “3 diaspora” to EFL (English Foreign Language) countries  Issues with model:  Based on geography and history  Grey area between inner and outer circles  20 countries in transition between EFL to ESL  Many bilingual/multilingual speakers  Difficult to describe speakers in terms of proficiency  Linguistic diversity  Therefore, many adaptions to model have been made  Standard language- variety of language that is considered the norm  Prestige variety- only powerful/elite speak standard language  Language standards- prescriptive language rules to be followed as the standard  Selection- the way one variety is chosen over any other as the standard language  Codification- rules transferred to textbooks and dictionaries  Elaboration is the next step  Acceptance  Standard English definitions: 1. Educated throughout the British isles, writing, radio/media 2. Taught to EFL/ESL students 3. Grammar and core vocab, not pronunciation 4. Professional, upper and middle classes 5. All native speakers learn it  Not a language, accent, style, register, or rules  “non-standard” implies inferior  Fossilization- learning of English ceased short of target competence (standard British or standard American English st  1 ndaspora- Inner Circle Englishes  2 diaspora- Outer Circle Englishes  The two overlap in time  Postcolonial English:  Developed through education system  Developed in area where native variety of English was not spoken by most of population  Used for range of functions among those who speak/write in region  Become localized or nativised by adopting some language features of its own  5 internal factors to decide status of English Innovation: 1. Demographic factor- how many speakers of standard variety use it 2. Geographical- how widely dispersed 3. Authoritative- where use is sanctioned 4. Codification- dictionaries and textbooks 5. Acceptability- attitude of users and non-users  Britain is ancestral home  Received pronunciation (RP)- tongue tip vibrates against upper teeth (ex: thin vs this); voiced  Voiceless word- final consonants- without vibration of vocal cords  Vowel quality/quantity- degree to which lips are rounded or spread/ how long sound maintained  Coinages- addition of prefix or suffix to existing word; compounding of local concept from English items  Confusion with idioms  Postcolonial Englishes have more formal characters than Inner Circle Englishes; more complex vocabulary and grammar  Code mixing/switching- words and phrases in 2 or more languages  Pidgin and Creole looked down on in past and often not considered real languages  Pidgin- language with no native speakers; contact language  Arises to fulfill restricted communication needs between people without shared common language  Creole- children of pidgin speakers use pidgin language and mother tongue; process called creolization  Decreolization- dominant language contact takes over creole language an later replaces or changes (ex: Ebonics)  Monogenesis- single origin  Polygenesis- independent origin  Theories of oringin: 1. Individual parallel development- creolds and pidgins arose and developed independently but in similar ways because of common linguistic ancestor 2. Nautical jargon- European ship crews were range of backgrounds and languages 3. Monogenesis and relexification- all European based pidgins and creoles derive from one source, a Portuguese pidgin used in world trade in 15 and 16 C th 4. Baby talk- similarities between early talk of kids and existing pidgins 5. A synthesis- pidgins and creoles are alike because simplification processes are alike ; suggest simple register is quickly moved away from with age  Innate bioprogram- language program humans are born with  Lingua Franca- purpose of communication without common language (ELF)  Why is English the world’s primary Lingua Franca?  Historical reasons- British/American imperialism  Internal political reasons- different ethnic groups  External economic reasons- USA business/trade  Practical reasons- international air traffic and emergency services  Intellectual reasons- science, technology, and academic info of world in English  Entertainment- music, media, pop culture  Personal advantages/prestige- English speakers higher status/more educated  ELF- English used as contact language among speakers with different first languages; common medium of choice or only option  Euro-English may be emerging  English already well ensconced in Asia, more so some regions than others  English was one of big 3 languages in European Union  Likely to be paradigm shift from language distribution to language spread (adaptation and nonconformity)  English could lose international role altogether  General American (GA)= accent variety of English  Modal verbs- may, will, can, ought to, etc.  Multi word/phrasal verbs- get up/down/on/off  Spanish is increasing internationally  May be a new world Lingua Franca in the future


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