English as A Global Language Week 1 Notes
English as A Global Language Week 1 Notes E 323L
Popular in English as a Global Language
Popular in Foreign Language
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courteney Feld on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to E 323L at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Blockley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see English as a Global Language in Foreign Language at University of Texas at Austin.
Reviews for English as A Global Language Week 1 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 01/27/16
English as A World Language E323L Unit A Book Notes 5.4 percent of English speakers out of world population Majority- English is not their first language 75 territories globally where English is the first language or institutionalized, but those who speak English as their second language (L2) are more than those whose first language is English (L1) 1 diaspora- 25,000 people migration from England to North America and Australia led to new varieties of English nd 2 diaspora- colonization of Asia and Africa led to second language varieties (New Englishes) 17 C- English spread to Southern America and Caribbean due to the slave trade English spoken among slaves = pidgin languages, which led to creoles Dialect mixing- influenced by indigenous aboriginal languages West Africa- slave trade, creole and pidgin East Africa- Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi have English as official language India’s official language is Hindi, but English is considered “associate official language” Taiwan, Japan, Korea- English has been considered as possible official second language English Native Language speakers (ENL)- 360 million Kachru’s 3 way categorization model for different spread of world Englishes: Inner Circle- English traveled from Britain to other ENL countries in 1 diaspora Outer Circle- traveled from Britain to ESL (English Second Language) countries during 2 nddiaspora “3 diaspora” to EFL (English Foreign Language) countries Issues with model: Based on geography and history Grey area between inner and outer circles 20 countries in transition between EFL to ESL Many bilingual/multilingual speakers Difficult to describe speakers in terms of proficiency Linguistic diversity Therefore, many adaptions to model have been made Standard language- variety of language that is considered the norm Prestige variety- only powerful/elite speak standard language Language standards- prescriptive language rules to be followed as the standard Selection- the way one variety is chosen over any other as the standard language Codification- rules transferred to textbooks and dictionaries Elaboration is the next step Acceptance Standard English definitions: 1. Educated throughout the British isles, writing, radio/media 2. Taught to EFL/ESL students 3. Grammar and core vocab, not pronunciation 4. Professional, upper and middle classes 5. All native speakers learn it Not a language, accent, style, register, or rules “non-standard” implies inferior Fossilization- learning of English ceased short of target competence (standard British or standard American English st 1 ndaspora- Inner Circle Englishes 2 diaspora- Outer Circle Englishes The two overlap in time Postcolonial English: Developed through education system Developed in area where native variety of English was not spoken by most of population Used for range of functions among those who speak/write in region Become localized or nativised by adopting some language features of its own 5 internal factors to decide status of English Innovation: 1. Demographic factor- how many speakers of standard variety use it 2. Geographical- how widely dispersed 3. Authoritative- where use is sanctioned 4. Codification- dictionaries and textbooks 5. Acceptability- attitude of users and non-users Britain is ancestral home Received pronunciation (RP)- tongue tip vibrates against upper teeth (ex: thin vs this); voiced Voiceless word- final consonants- without vibration of vocal cords Vowel quality/quantity- degree to which lips are rounded or spread/ how long sound maintained Coinages- addition of prefix or suffix to existing word; compounding of local concept from English items Confusion with idioms Postcolonial Englishes have more formal characters than Inner Circle Englishes; more complex vocabulary and grammar Code mixing/switching- words and phrases in 2 or more languages Pidgin and Creole looked down on in past and often not considered real languages Pidgin- language with no native speakers; contact language Arises to fulfill restricted communication needs between people without shared common language Creole- children of pidgin speakers use pidgin language and mother tongue; process called creolization Decreolization- dominant language contact takes over creole language an later replaces or changes (ex: Ebonics) Monogenesis- single origin Polygenesis- independent origin Theories of oringin: 1. Individual parallel development- creolds and pidgins arose and developed independently but in similar ways because of common linguistic ancestor 2. Nautical jargon- European ship crews were range of backgrounds and languages 3. Monogenesis and relexification- all European based pidgins and creoles derive from one source, a Portuguese pidgin used in world trade in 15 and 16 C th 4. Baby talk- similarities between early talk of kids and existing pidgins 5. A synthesis- pidgins and creoles are alike because simplification processes are alike ; suggest simple register is quickly moved away from with age Innate bioprogram- language program humans are born with Lingua Franca- purpose of communication without common language (ELF) Why is English the world’s primary Lingua Franca? Historical reasons- British/American imperialism Internal political reasons- different ethnic groups External economic reasons- USA business/trade Practical reasons- international air traffic and emergency services Intellectual reasons- science, technology, and academic info of world in English Entertainment- music, media, pop culture Personal advantages/prestige- English speakers higher status/more educated ELF- English used as contact language among speakers with different first languages; common medium of choice or only option Euro-English may be emerging English already well ensconced in Asia, more so some regions than others English was one of big 3 languages in European Union Likely to be paradigm shift from language distribution to language spread (adaptation and nonconformity) English could lose international role altogether General American (GA)= accent variety of English Modal verbs- may, will, can, ought to, etc. Multi word/phrasal verbs- get up/down/on/off Spanish is increasing internationally May be a new world Lingua Franca in the future