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Botany 105 First Week Lecture Notes

by: Kellie Ventura

Botany 105 First Week Lecture Notes 105

Marketplace > Humboldt State University > Botany > 105 > Botany 105 First Week Lecture Notes
Kellie Ventura
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Botany 105 as taught by Courtney Otto! The first week was pretty straightforward but I'll try and embellish more in the future so you guys get your money's worth.
General Botany
Courtney Otto
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kellie Ventura on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 105 at Humboldt State University taught by Courtney Otto in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 144 views. For similar materials see General Botany in Botany at Humboldt State University.


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Date Created: 01/27/16
January 20-22, 2016 Botany 105 Botany = the study of bacteria (mostly photosynthetic), algae, fungi, and PLANTS o Basically whatever the biologists didn’t want Plastids  Found within the cell  3 basic types (chloroplasts, chromoplasts, leucoplasts)  All related to each other evolutionarily  All have 2 layers of membrane  Vary by color and function Chloroplasts Are green because of chlorophyll Function: photosynthesis Chromoplasts  Can vary from yellow and orange to red because of carotenoids (remember carot- like carrots)  Serves to attract animal seed dispersers or pollinators o So only develop once fruit is ripe and the seeds are mature enough to be dispersed Leucoplasts  Naturally colorless (become blue-black when dyed)  Some store starch while others make oils (i.e. essential oils) Mitochondria  2 layers of membrane  Power cellular respiration  How all cells get useful energy to power metabolism Inside the Cell Organelles = membrane-bound compartments Protoplasm = everything inside the cell wall (i.e. plasma membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, etc.) Vacuole = Liquid-filled cavity inside the cell Ribosomes = organelles where proteins are made January 20-22, 2016 Chromatin = unwound DNA inside the nucleus Nucleolus/Nucleoli = little nodules inside the nucleus responsible for making ribosomes Cell Wall  2 types: primary ( 1°¿ and secondary (2 ° )  1° cell walls are made of cellulose and are rigid  2 ° cell walls are made of cellulose and lignin o Lignin strengthens and waterproofs  2 ° cell walls can be found underneath 1° cell walls, but only in select cells o 2 ° cell walls are primarily in reinforcement and water conduction cells Plasmodesmata = cytoplasmic connections between adjacent cells Middle Lamella = pectin layer between adjacent cells (necessary for plasmodesmata to exist) Vascular Plants  Includes ferns, conifers, and flowering plants  Have complex anatomy and morphology due to evolutionary pressure  3 cell types of vascular plants (parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma) Vascular tissue = internal conductive tissue Parenchyma 1°  Have thin cell walls  Alive at maturity  Used for photosynthesis, storage, and filler cells Collenchyma  Have unevenly thickened 1° cell walls o Usually thicker towards the corners  Alive at maturity  Used for flexible support o Ex. The stringy bits in celery stalks January 20-22, 2016 Sclerenchyma  Have both 1° and 2 ° cell walls  Dead at maturity  Used for protection, support, and water conduction  Have lumen Lumen = empty space where protoplast was Sclereids (Sclerenchyma) Type of sclerenchyma cell Used for protection o found in seed coats, nut shells, and the grit in pears Short cell shape ° o Made up mostly of 2 cell wall o Does have 1 ° cell wall, but very thin Has simple pits Simple pit = hole/channel through 2 ° cell wall Fibers (Sclerenchyma)  Used for rigid support o Found in wood, fibrous stems and leaves  Long and thin cell shape with tapered ends (like a very thin pea pod)  Has simple pits


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