PSY 2710 Abnormal Psychology notes from 1/14-1/26
PSY 2710 Abnormal Psychology notes from 1/14-1/26 PSY 2710
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by hw767714 on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2710 at Ohio University taught by Professor Sarah Racine in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
PSY 2710 – ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTERS 1&2 - LECTURES FROM 1/14 - 1/26 What is abnormality within psychology? Abnormality – When a patient displays some of the following behaviors and symptoms. (However, one symptom or behavior is not enough to justify abnormality. The more symptoms a patient displays, the more likely it is for the patient to have an abnormal psychological disorder.) ▬ Suffering – feeling strong psychological pain and stress ▬ Maladaptiveness – when someone has trouble getting to work/class on time, has very poor relationships, and other behaviors that prevent someone from functioning normally on a daily basis. ▬ Statistically deviant – when someone displays a behavior that is very uncommon and statistically abnormal. ▬ Violation of societal standards – When someone breaks the societal and/or cultural norms and moral codes set by their culture to a high degree. ▬ Social discomfort – When someone breaks a societal and/or cultural norm and makes everyone around them feel uncomfortable. For example, If someone you’ve just met 2 minutes ago started talking about their suicidal thoughts, you would probably feel very uncomfortable. ▬ Irrationality and Unpredictability – When someone engages in extremely sporadic and disorganized behavior. Things such as disorganized speech, spontaneous yelling, and extravagant outbursts would examples of this. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM for short, is the accepted standard to define various types of mental disorders ▬ The DSM defines a mental illness is a clinically significant syndrome present in an individual that involves a disturbance in behavior, emotion regulation, or cognitive functioning. These behaviors and functions differ from culture to culture, but are not considered normal within that culture. Wakefield believes that harmful dysfunction is needed for something to be considered a mental illness. Harm caused to oneself or others is a necessary component for diagnosing a mental illness. When this harm is so severe that it disables one’s ability to function, it is considered a mental illness. Wakefield also believed that the DSM doesn’t clearly distinguish between disorders or just problems of living. The DSM has evolved tremendously over the years. It has gone from general ideas and vague descriptions of a disorder to detailed, specific descriptions and symptoms associated with a disorder. There has also been a substantial increase in the number of disorders that is included in the DSM. Even though the DSM has come a long way, it certainly hasn’t finished evolving. Listed below are each of the DSM’s and the year that they were released. ▬ DSM-1 (1952) ▬ DSM-2 (1968) ▬ DSM-3 (1980) ▬ DSM-3 Revised (1987) PSY 2710 – ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTERS 1&2 - LECTURES FROM 1/14 - 1/26 ▬ DSM-4 (1994) ▬ DSM-4 Text revision (2000) ▬ DSM-5 (2013) Advantages of the DSM ▬ Structured, organized information ▬ Allows professionals to easily communicate with one another ▬ Has an increased reliability ▬ Allows us to easily study and research disorders ▬ Provides us with a standard foundation of each disorder. This means that there is no difference between how each professional envisions each disorder. Disadvantages of the DSM ▬ Validity of a disorder – Is what you say you’re measuring actually what you’re measuring? For example, if you believe someone has depression based on some symptoms they are showing, is it actually depression? Or could it be another disorder with similar symptoms? Also, are mental disorders best represented as categories or dimensions? (Example: using a severity scale when diagnosing depression patients instead of just categorizing it all into depression.) ▬ There is no information about etiology, or what causes a disorder, when diagnosing. ▬ There are problems associated with comorbidity, or having two or more mental disorders at the same time, when diagnosing a patient. The patient’s mental illnesses could both have the same underlying risk factors. ▬ Stigma and labeling can lead to more issues. These issues can be caused by referring to a patient as their disorder. For example, it is wrong to call someone a bipolar person rather than a person with a bipolar disorder or to call someone a schizophrenic rather than a person with schizophrenia. The expression of abnormality can depend on certain factors such as: ▬ Culture (A behavior that one culture labels as abnormal might be completely accepted by another.) ▬ Age ▬ Sex (Males tend to externalize distress while females tend to internalize distress.) Epidemiology – The distribution of diseases and disorders in a given population. Prevalence – The number of active mental disorder and disease cases in a population during any given period of time. Incidence – The number of new mental disorder and disease cases that arise in a given period of time. Family aggregation – Whether or not a disease runs in a family. For example, some people might have a genetic predisposition to some disorders which would make it more likely for them to get a psychological disorder. The History of Abnormal Psychology PSY 2710 – ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTERS 1&2 - LECTURES FROM 1/14 - 1/26 Focused on the zeitgeist. Zeitgeist is the mood, spirit, or general beliefs of a particular time period in history. The zeitgeist affected how abnormal behaviors were interpreted. Supernatural Traditions – For many years the Chinese, Egyptians, Hebrews, and Greeks believed that the reason for a person’s abnormal behavior was that a demon or god had taken possession of that person’s body. It was believed that in order to treat and cure someone of this “possession” that the person had to be exorcised. ▬ This exorcism included magic, prayers, incantation, nasty concoctions, and more. ▬ Another method used to rid someone of the demonic spirit was trephining. Trephining is when a hole was surgically cut into a person’s skull in an attempt to allow the demonic spirit to fly out. The Middle ages (500-1500 A.D.) (The Dark Ages) was an era of limited scientific inquiry and mass madness. ▬ Two common forms of this madness were Tarantism (claims of being bit by a spider and that caused them to dance uncontrollably) and Lycanthropy (claims of being bit by a werewolf and being turned into one). ▬ Witchcraft was also common during this time. People (mostly women of poor standards) who acted different from the others were accused of being a witch. The Early Medical Tradition took a more natural route on psychological disorders. ▬ Hippocrates believed that natural causes were to blame for psychological disorders and created more appropriate treatments based on these causes. He also took detailed clinical observations of all his patients. ▬ Hippocrates and Galen developed the doctrine of the four humors. This meant that whatever fluid someone had an excess of determined their mental state. An excess of blood means you’re optimistic, phlegm means you’re apathetic, black bile means you’re melancholic, and yellow bile means you’re quick tempered. The later medical tradition (otherwise known as the medical model) treats mental illnesses like all other illnesses. They have now figured out that there are links between the brain and psychological disorders. ▬ At this time lobotomy was believed to be a cure to all mental disorders. Lobotomy actually just put people into an unresponsive, vegetative state. During the animal tradition, professionals strongly endorsed institutionalization and asylums. People with psychological disorders were thrown in an institution or asylum and kept there just like a prisoner. The care and living conditions in these institutions were known to be very poor. Unruly patients were known to be held in chains. ▬ By institutionalizing people, you are able to remove the “troubled” people from the population. This almost made it seems like mental PSY 2710 – ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTERS 1&2 - LECTURES FROM 1/14 - 1/26 illnesses didn’t exist in society. It was believed that this was done to “protect” the rest of society. ▬ During this period, someone with a mental disorder was viewed as an animal instead of a person. During the reform movement (1700-1800) professionals started to treat patients with psychological disorders as humans to help with healing. ▬ Philippe Pinel believed that the patient’s chains should be removed to give the patients a sense of freedom. ▬ William Tuke believed that freedom mixed with responsibility such as daily chores/duties would be more efficient in the healing process. This encouraged a normal daily lifestyle instead of an imprisonment. It gave the patients a sense of purpose. ▬ Benjamin Rush focused on moral management. Moral management is a treatment that is focused on the patient’s social, individual, and occupational needs. This method focused on the patient’s overall character. ▬ Dorthea Dix focused on mental hygiene. She advocated for the government to build newer, nicer, cleaner asylums to help the patients heal. On the more recent side of things… ▬ There has been a decrease in moral therapy and an increase in poor treatment due to the incurability of mental illnesses. ▬ Another reform happened in the 1950’s. Anti-psychotic drugs were just being introduced and this caused changes to take place within the psychological world. ▬ Once anti-psychotic drugs were discovered many patients were deinstitutionalized and sent on their way with a prescription. This might have worked for some, but wasn’t a permanent solution for everyone. This meant shorter hospital stays, quicker and sometimes faulty diagnoses, and drugs for every psychological issue. Currently we recognize that the same symptoms of a psychological disorder can be caused by different things. We have also come to realize the continuity of mental diseases and that there is a relationship between biological, psychological, and social factors that can cause a mental disorder. Key historical figures ▬ Emil Kraeplin (1856-1926) created the Compedium Der Psychiatric in 1883. This was basically the first version of the DSM before the DSM was even created. It classified mental disorders. ▬ Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was considered to be the father of psychoanalysis. He identified and tried to treat hysteria. He also believed that we all had deep sexual instincts and that is what backed a lot of psychological processes. ▬ Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) had the first experimental psychology laboratory. He worked a lot with analyzing and interpreting behavior. Due to Wundt having the first experimental psychology lab, many of his students were the first to work in the United States. PSY 2710 – ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTERS 1&2 - LECTURES FROM 1/14 - 1/26 ▬ Lightner Witmer (1867-1956) is considered to be the father of clinical psychology. He owned the first psychological clinic at the University of Pennsylvania. ▬ Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) was a Russian physiologist who studied conditioned responses. His experiment with the dogs and their conditioned response to salivate created the basis for behaviorism. ▬ John Watson (1878-1958) was the true father of behaviorism. His method was to abandon the “mental” aspects of psychology and to focus on the observable traits that you could already see. He conducted the Little Albert study. ▬ B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) studied operant conditioning. Believed that you can reinforce behavior to increase that behavior. You can reward each small step to get closer to the overall goal. Research Methods and Dissemination Benefits of research in abnormal psychology ▬ You are able to examine the prevalence of specific disorders. ▬ It helps to identify etiologic factors (the factors that cause a disorder) ▬ You get to investigate novel treatments Where do you get your information? ▬ Case studies ▬ Self-reports (Examples are questionnaires and interviews) ▬ Observing (this can be done in both a laboratory and natural setting) ▬ Biological (looking at the biological factors that are present and how it ties into a mental disorder. This can be genetics, neurotransmitters, etc.) The Research Process ▬ Form a research question ▬ Search the literature (You need to find out if this study has been done before and if your research question has already been answered) ▬ Operationalize (this is how you define certain parts of your question to standardize) ▬ Form a hypothesis ▬ Design and conduct your study ▬ Perform a statistical analysis to find results ▬ Spread your findings about your study (publish them) ▬ Form your next study to answer any questions that weren’t answered by this study When forming a research question and hypothesis make sure they are both testable. You also need to make sure the study is relevant and that people will care about the results. You will also need to make sure your work is original or state that you are replicating a study and why you are replicating it. Who are your participants? ▬ When sampling, you need to make sure you get a representative sample to apply to the population. ▬ This sample needs to be random and have no biases. PSY 2710 – ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTERS 1&2 - LECTURES FROM 1/14 - 1/26 ▬ Your criterion group is your group of interest. ▬ Your control group is the group you compare the criterion group to. Internal validity basically reflects how confident we can be with the results of a given study and how methodologically sound the study is. This can be done by controlling for variables that may interfere with the results. External validity is how much your research can apply to the general population. You need to make sure your results generalize to other settings. Usually you would need to have an ideal balance between the two. Different research designs ▬ Retrospective designs question if earlier factors can cause someone to be predisposed to a certain psychological disorder. ▬ Prospective (longitudinal) designs study participants over periods of time. They examine individuals before they develop a psychological disorder. This type of study tries to find out if elements in childhood can predict if someone will develop a disorder in adulthood. ▬ Animal research is experimental research applied to animals. This gives us much more control, but we don’t always know if the results can transfer to humans. ▬ Single-case experimental designs collect data from the same individual over a period of time. This can be used to examine the effects of a certain treatment. ▬ Experimental designs can manipulate one element while controlling all of the other ones. For this study you need to have both independent and dependent variables. ▬ An observational/correlational design tests to see if certain factors are associated with a certain trait or disorder. **CORRELATION DOESN’T EQUAL CAUSATION** PSY 2710 – ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTERS 1&2 - LECTURES FROM 1/14 - 1/26 What measures will you use to collect your data? (Questionnaires, interviews, etc.) Make sure you have reliable measures! You need to have internal consistency and validity. When communicating your results of your study, you need to show your statistical significance and effect size. Components of an empirical research article ▬ Introduction and literature review ▬ Methods (This includes your participants, measures, experimental methods, and statistical analyses) ▬ Results ▬ Discussion Biological Factors Genotype – your genetic background. Phenotype – your observable behaviors and characteristics Family and twin studies help us to study the genetic factors of psychological disorders. These studies also help us to see how genetic and environmental factors intersect in the development of mental disorders. Twin studies can help us to separate factors that could influence a behavior. Researchers look at the relationships between genetic, shared environment (the components that make the twins similar), and non-shared environment (the components that make twins different) factors to see what is environmental and what is biological. ▬ Monozygotic (Identical twins) share 100% of their genes, 100% of their shared environment, and 0% of their non-shared environment. ▬ Dizygotic (Fraternal twins) share about 50% of their genes, 100% of their shared environment, and 0% of their non-shared environment. ▬ Twin correlations – Seeing how one twin’s behavior relates to the other twin’s behavior. ▬ Twin concordance – whether or not both twins have the same disorder. PSY 2710 – ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTERS 1&2 - LECTURES FROM 1/14 - 1/26 Adoption studies compare adopted children to their biological parents and their adopted parents to determine if certain diseases are genetic or environmental. Gene-environment interactions show us that both genes and environment are important factors. Some genes can predispose you to a disorder and the environment could determine if you get that disorder or not. The environment can change how you react to a disorder. Gene-environment correlation – This is when genes and environment are related to each other. Both genes and the environment interact to produce the outcome. An individual’s genotype may influence the environment they’re in ▬ Passive – When you get the genetic trait and environmental influences naturally. (Ex. If you inherited a high IQ from your parents and they read to you because of their high IQ. You get a high IQ and the environmental influence without having to do anything) ▬ Evocative – When you evoke a reaction in order to shape your environment. (Ex. If a child gets excited whenever a parent reads to them the parent might be more inclined to read to the child.) ▬ Active – When the individual seeks out experiences based on genotype. They seek out an environment that is consistent to their genes. (Ex. A kid with a high IQ enrolls himself into an academic after school program to supplement high IQ) Neurotransmitters can influence psychological disorders. ▬ Too many = can influence disorders. (Ex. Too much dopamine = Parkinson’s disease) ▬ Problems with deactivation = Not enough space for things to bind and it causes the neurotransmitter to go back in. ▬ Problems with reuptake = not enough of a transmitter ▬ Problems with post synaptic receptors = not able to receive neurotransmitters Serotonin is related to mood, aggression, eating, and sexual behavior. GABA is an inhibitory transmitter. A lack of this can make someone wound up Dopamine is related to Parkinson’s, addiction, cognition, motivation, and reward.
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