BIOL 1040 notes, Chapter 37
BIOL 1040 notes, Chapter 37 BIOL 1040
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Stewart on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1040 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Surver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Chapter 37 continued… Lecture given 1/26/16 *Must know the regulation of glucose • Hormones use 2 signaling mechanisms to affect target tissues; water vs. lipid soluble • Hormone signaling involves 3 stages: 1. Reception – receptor protein on or in the target cell 2. Signal transduction – coverts signal into a response process in cell 3. Response – a change in the cells behavior • Two groups of hormones - Water-soluble – includes proteins, short polypeptides, and modified amino acids; most common - Lipid-soluble – includes steroid hormones and small molecules made from cholesterol • Water soluble hormones cannot pass through the cell membrane • Must be a receptor on the outside of the membrane to accept the hormone • Lipid-soluble hormones can pass through the membrane and bind to receptors inside the cell Vertebrate Endocrine System • Endocrine glands secrete hormones in the blood system, called ductless glands • Pancreas a ductless gland, produces digestive enzymes and secretes them into the small intestine; stomach and heart also have cells that secret hormones Hypothalamus/pituitary – this part of brain blurs distinction between the endocrine and nervous systems; they function together • These parts of brain receive input from nerves about internal conditions of the body and external environment • Respond by sending out nervous and endocrine signals • Pituitary gland used by hypothalamus to exert “master control” over the endocrine system • Pituitary consists of 2 parts: 1. Posterior pituitary – composed of nervous tissue, extension of the hypothalamus, and stores/secretes oxytocin and ADH (which are produced by neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus) 2. Anterior pituitary – synthesizes/secretes hormone that control other glands, but is controlled by 2 hormones released by hypothalamus - Releasing hormones – stimulate anterior pituitary - Inhibiting hormones – inhibit the anterior pituitary • Pancreas secrets 2 hormones that control blood glucose (antagonistic hormones) 1. Insulin – signals cells to use and store glucose 2. Glucagon – causes cells to release stored glucose into blood Example: Insect Metamorphosis • Hormones regulate the insect life cycle • Adults lay eggs, which hatch as larva; after molting many times, they turn into a pupae; when pupa hatch, the cycle starts again
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