Week 2 Chem Notes and Example Problems!
Week 2 Chem Notes and Example Problems! CHEM 104 - 50
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Hershberger on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 104 - 50 at University of Indianapolis taught by Susan A. Frantsi in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Organic and Biochem in Chemistry at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Chem 104 Day 2 Notes January 25 2016 measurement lab and safety lab due and print out Wednesday Labs due in locker the Monday following the lab Math and Chemistry Scienti c notation Method to write very large or small numbers in an easy to use way Made of a number between 1 and 10 multiplied by 10 to some power The exponent tells how many places you moved the decimal point to change the number to a value between 1 and 10 The sign of the exponent tells what direction you moved the decimal point negative means the original value is less than one and positive means the original value is greater than 1 Ex 5321000 532 x10quot7 Which way does it move If the number is a decimal the EX 000049 49 XloA394 exponent will be negative Ex 532 x 10quot7 11 x 10quot11 If the number is a whole 49 x 10quot4 number the exponent will be nnciHuo EX 532X 10quot749X10quot4 2607X10quot3 2607 X10quot4 Ex 46 x10quot3 32x10quot5 Exponents MUST BE THE 046x10quot5 32x10quot5 SAME The more numbersdecimal places the ver is Signi cant gures Always make measurements to as mar it will allow with the last digit being estimate Can only estimate on the last digit Your calculations can be no more accurate than your least accurate number Always go to all the numbers you know and then one more which you guess on Exact numbers are ones that have unlimited accuracy and there is not an uncertain last digit ie you gave the patient 3 tablets To determine the number of dig gs all nonzero numbers are signi cant Ex 0010043900 a b cd ef Leading zeros a amp b NEVER signi cant Trapped zeros c amp d ALWAYS signi cant only thing that can trap a zero are two nonzero numbers Trailing zeros e amp f aways signi cant IF there is a written decimal point Chem 104 Day 2 Notes January 25 2016 5000 4 sig g EXCLUSION 10 1 sig g 10 pennies unlimited if you counted that is a de nite number and there can be as many sig gs as you need Ex 5000 estimated number INSTEAD write 500 x10quot3 Go to SN when you need a certain number for sig gs but place holders are in the way Ex 140021 6 sig gs EX 1400210 7 sig gs EX 000042 3 sig gs Ex 0 401 4 sig gs EX 1 3 00 3 sig gs 10300 5 sig gs Rounding Look at the number immediately to the right of the identi ed value If that number is 4 or less you merely drop them may need to replace with zeros to hold the decimal place If the number is 5 or more you add one to the rounding place value number EX 13381 140 5 or more round up 5 or less round down Ex 17842 178 Ex 143 761 1 lCE 97 you need every same position to round to Ex 439 x 19 x10 5 because that is the number the smallest one has 837x10quot2 Factor label method for unit conversions write the unit you want to change Ex Fred the snail can slither 4 inper min 4in x 1 ft x 1mie 000006313 6313x10quot105 mi x 60min 379x10quot3 Chem 104 Day 2 Notes January 25 2016 1min 12in 5280ft min 1hr Ex 16yr min old m x 365days x 24hours x 60min 8 409 600 min old 84 x10quot6 1 1yr 1days 1hr Ex 374cm in 1in 254cm 374cm x 1in 147in 1 254cm Ex 139km 1390m KHDBDCM 1km1000m Ex 1L98qt129L 10galons of gasL 10gallons x 4dt 40dt x 1L 39Lx129 1 1galon 1 98qt Ex 1in254cm 3mim 3mix 5280ft x 12in x 254cmx 1m ANS m 1 1mi 1ft 1in 100cm Temperature conversions F 18C 32 C F3218 KC 27315 CK 27315 Ex 91FC C 913218 3278 33C Chemical Pr0perties Characteristics of matter that describe the type of reactions that matter will participate in Always involve the change of identity of the matter to create something different Characteristics that describe the way the substance undergoes or resists changing into a new substance molecularity different Chemical changes result in something new and different than what started with Example of properties the substance will react with oxygen decomposes oxidizes forms a precipitate a gas is given off rot burn cook digest sour unexpected gas bubbling zzing unexpected temperature change unexpected solidcolor change gives you something new that you didn39t have before Chem 104 Day 2 Notes January 25 2016 Physical Properties Characteristics of matter that give the matter its identity Can be determined by using senses and do NOT involve changing the composition of the matter Characteristics like color taste smell melting point boiling point state of matter shapedens y Changes that occur that do not change the identity of the material are called physical changes boiling freezing cutting melting tearing warming gently stirring mixing ltering cut dissolve density massvolume Elements found on periodic table smallest particle of an element with the element39s properties is called an atom approximately 118 varieties symbol is 1 or 2 letters rst letter only is always capital except for the most recent ones rst 92 are found in nature rest are man made uppercase and lower case MA I I39ERS Ex COCarbon Oxide CoCobalt Compounds Made up of atoms that are chemically combined Each compound has a unique formula recipe that gives it its characteristic chemical properties change the formula changes the compound and its properties Chemical properties are different from the properties of the elements they are made of recipe is what it is YOU CAN39T CHANGE IT smallest piece of a compound that has the same properties of the compound is a molecule or formula unit Compounds are written using chemical symbolsnumber of capital letters gives clue to number of elements in a compound quantity of each element recipe shown by subscripts CaNO32 Periodic Table what does it tell us Shows all known elements in the world and gives lots of info about each one gives average mass of each element decimal number on chart
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