Chapter 1 An Overview of Psychopathology
Chapter 1 An Overview of Psychopathology Pysch 439
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayley Banks on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Pysch 439 at Radford University taught by Kathryn Ryder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Radford University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Chapter 1: An Overview of Psychopathology Psychopathology o The study of mental illness DALY o Disability-Adjusted Life Year Represents the total number of years lost to illness, disability, or premature Stigma o Negative attitudes and beliefs that cause the general public to avoid others including those with mental illness o Defined as a mark or disgrace associated with a particular person Conceptions of Mental Illness o Physical disorders involved the body and mental disorders involved the mind o Mental disorders are brain disorders o Physical disorders are like immune system, chemical processes in the body which can be equally involved in mental disorders Three Major Themes o Behavioral and Experimental Perspective Examines the behavior and experience observed in psychopathology Examine current ways of classifying and describing abnormal behavior o Neuroscience Perspective Emphasize the structure and function of the brain Using brain imaging, it becomes clear that mental disorders are brain disorders o Evolutionary Perspective Look at certain ways of seeing or being in the world that might be adaptive Look at if there is any advantage to behaving and feeling in certain ways that others consider abnormal Adaptive function Look at how one basic human process developed in relation to an earlier one Level of Analysis o Ranging from culture and society at a higher level to the individual at a middle level o Physiology and genetics at the lower levels o Higher level include culture and society as well as our social relationships o Individual level includes our actions and our experiences include sensory, motor, emotional, and cognitive systems o Lower levels include physiological processes that make up our central and peripheral nervous systems Genetic level Understand how environmental conditions influence genetic processes Epigenetics o Where genes can be turned on or off by the environment and these mechanisms can be passed on to the future generations without actually changing the basic genetic structure Biospsychosocial Approach o Biological- status on health o Psychological- What do you think, what is going on in the brain o Those with mental illness or even a medical disorder should not be only understood from a biological perspective o Examples: 2 Diabetes is a disorder, which relates to how a person eats and exercises Depression and anxiety can be influences by social and emotional factors Have to see the signs and symptoms of the disorder in a larger context Culture Perspective o Examines the social world in which a person lives and from which a person learns skills, values, beliefs, attitudes, and other information o Current views of culture emphasize the social world in which person lives o Genes become more prevalent o 5-HTT serotonin gene variant associated with being prone to develop higher levels of anxiety and depression Common of Japanese and European individuals o The evolutionary and cultural perspectives help us ask questions such as what function a disorder might serve and how it came about What is Psychopathology? o Five ideas common to the definition Psychopathology are maladaptive and not in the individual’s best interest Personal distress A deviance from both cultural and statistical norms The person has difficulty connecting with his or her environment and also with himself or herself Depersonalization (disconnect from body) Feeling out of place, can not tell the difference between what is real vs not real Inability to fully consider alternative ways of thinking, feeling, or doing 3 Negative thoughts (paranoia) Is Psychopathology Universal? o Differ from culture to culture whether wherever you are o Humans would recognize similar expressions of the basic emotion o Prevalence is similar in cultures across the world then it is more likely to be part of the human condition rather than culturally derived o Example: Schizophrenia are found at similar rates around the world 4
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