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Hist 111, Week 2 Notes

by: Rachel Stein

Hist 111, Week 2 Notes History 111

Rachel Stein
GPA 3.8

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These notes cover all information from Chapter 2 and 3. I would recommend reading Chapter 3 before class in case we have a quiz.
United States History to 1865
Nicole Maskiell
Class Notes
United States History, history
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Stein on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 111 at University of South Carolina taught by Nicole Maskiell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see United States History to 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
Chapter  2:  Colliding  Cultures     Intro   • The  Columbian  exchange  transformed  both  sides  of  the  Atlantic     • New  diseases  wiped  out  entire  civilizations  in  the  Americas     • While  new  nutrient  rich  food  enabled  a  European  population  boom   • Spain  benefited  from  the  wealth  of  the  Aztec  and  Incan  Empires     • Portugal,  France,  Netherlands  and  England  all  raced  to  the  New  World   Spanish  America     • Juan  Ponce  de  Leon  arrived  in  “La  Florida”  in  1513   o Found  150,000-­‐300,000  native  Americans     • In  1560s  Spain  expelled  French  Protestants,  called  Huguenots,  from  the  area   near  modern-­‐day  Jacksonville     • 1586  they  burned  the  wooden  settlement  of  St.  Augustine     • Spanish  crown  granted  missionaries  the  right  to  live  among  villagers  and   establish  settlement  through  the  encomienda  system     • In  the  1630s  the  mission  system  extended  to  the  Apalachee  district     o Grew  an  abundance  of  corn  and  other  crops     • 1598  Juan  de  Onate  led  400  settlers,  soldiers,  and  missionaries  from  Mexico  into   New  Mexico     o Ordered  one  foot  cut  off  every  surviving  male  over  15  and  he  enslaved   the  remaining  women  and  children     • 1610  Santa  Fe  was  established  as  the  first  permanent  European  settlement  in   the  Southwest     o People  didn’t  want  to  move  to  a  dry  and  hostile  environment     • Missionaries  provided  span  with  an  advance  guard  in  North  America     Spain’s  Rivals  Emerge     • Reformation  threw  England  and  France  into  turmoil     • Reports  of  Spain’s  atrocities  spread  through  Europe  and  provided  humanitarian   justification  for  colonization     • Spanish  accused  the  critics  of  fostering  a  “Black  Legend”   o Drew  on  religious  differences  and  political  rivalries     • French   o French  Colonization  developed  through  investment  from  private  trading   companies     o Needs  of  fur  trade  set  the  future  pattern  of  French  colonization     o Founded  in  1608  under  the  leadership  of  Samuel  de  Champlain,  Quebec   provided  the  foothold  for  what  would  become  New  France     o Many  Protestants  (Huguenots)  sought  to  emigrate  after  france   criminalized  Protestantism  in  1685,  but  all  non  Catholics  were  forbidden   in  New  France     o Desire  for  trade  not  settlement  led  to  better  relations  with  native  people     o Many  French  fur  traders  married  Indian  women     ▯ Children  of  mixed  parents  were  so  common  they  created  a  term,   Metis,  to  describe  them     o Huron  tribe  became  close  to  the  French  but  were  then  decimated  by   disease  and  entanglements  in  French  and  Dutch  conflicts     • The  Dutch   o 1581  the  Netherlands  had  officially  broken  away  from  the  Hapsburgs  and   won  a  reputation  as  the  freest  of  the  new  European  nations   o Dutch  women  had  separate  legal  identities  from  their  husbands   ▯ Could  own  property  and  divorce   o Greater  religious  tolerance  and  freedom  than  other  European  nations     o Netherlands  built  colonial  empire  through  work  of  experienced   merchants  and  skilled  sailors     ▯ Created  innovative  financial  organizations  such  as  the  Amsterdam   Stock  Exchange  and  the  East  India  Company     o Slavery  was  an  essential  part  of  Dutch  capitalist  triumphs     o 1609  Dutch  commissioned  the  Englishman  Henry  Hudson  to  discover  the   Fabled  Northwest  Passage  through  North  America     ▯ Instead  found  Hudson  river  and  claimed  New  York  for  the  Dutch     o Not  wanting  to  repeat  the  black  legend  the  Dutch  fashioned  guidelines     ▯ Insisted  land  be  purchased  from  natives   • However  natives  didn’t  believe  in  a  single  person  owning   land   o Dutch  sought  to  profit  not  to  conquer     ▯ Traded  wampum  –  shell  beads  fashioned  by  Indians     o Established  farms,  settlements,  and  lumbar  camps     ▯ Patron  system:  granted  large  estates  to  wealthy  landlords,  who   paid  passage  for  tenants  to  work  the  land     ▯ Also  caused  deterioration  between  relationships  with  natives     ▯ System  failed  which  led  to  labor  shortages     th o Practice  of  African  slavery  in  early  17  century  was  much  less   exploitative  than  later  on     • The  Portuguese     o Rivalry  between  Portuguese  and  Spanish  created  a  crisis  within  the   Catholic  world     o Pope  intervened  and  divided  the  new  world  with  the  Treaty  of   Tordesillas  in  1494   ▯ To  the  east  would  be  Portugal  and  to  the  west  would  be  spain     ▯ In  return  the  nations  were  instructed  to  treat  natives  with   Christian  compassion  and  bring  them  under  the  protection  of  the   church     o 2  industries  powered  early  colonial  Brazil:  sugar  and  slave  trade     ▯ There  were  many  gold  mines  but  they  weren’t  nearly  as  profitable     o Jesuit  missionaries  brought  Christianity  to  brazil     o Escaped  slaves  created  free  settlements  called  quilombos     ▯ Were  both  African  and  native  escaped  slaves     English  Colonization     • Wrenching  social  and  economic  changes  unsettled  the  English  population   • Population  grew  by  two  million  in  100  years  and  cost  of  land  skyrocketed     o ¼  to  ½  of  the  population  lived  in  extreme  poverty   • Many  English  colonization  supporters  claimed  to  be  doing  gods  work     • Wanted  to  Christianize  the  New  World’s  pagan  peoples     • A  Christian  enterprise,  a  blow  against  Spain,  an  economic  stimulus  and  social   safety  valve  all  beckoned  the  English  toward  a  commitment  to  colonization     • English  merchants  collaborated  with  joint-­‐stock  companies  to  improve  on  the   Dutch  economic  system     • 1606  James  I  approved  the  formation  of  the  Virginia  Company   o Named  after  the  virgin  queen   • Privateering  was  more  successful  than  colonization     o Job  was  to  plunder  Spanish  shops  and  towns  in  America     o Transformed  crime  into  politics     o Awarded  skilled  pirates  with  knighthood     • 1588  King  Philip  II  of  Spain  unleashed  the  armada  and  the  largest  invasion  in   history  to  destroy  the  British  navy  and  depose  Elizabeth     • England  was  able  to  defeat  the  Armada   o Help  of  “divine  wind”   • 1587  John  White  reestablished  an  abandoned  settlement  on  North  Carolina’s   Roanoke  Island   o He  went  home  to  England  for  a  few  years  and  when  he  returned  the   colony  was  abandoned     o Found  the  word  “Croatan”  carved  into  a  tree     o Historians  believed  they  may  have  fled  or  have  faced  violence     • When  Queen  Elizabeth  died  in  1603  there  was  still  no  permanent  North   American  colony     Jamestown   • 1607  the  ships  –  Susan  constant,  godspeed,  and  discovery  –  sailed  40  miles  up   the  James  river  in  present  day  Virginia       o Landed  on  a  peninsula     • Peninsula  was  bad  because  of  terrible  soil  and  brackish  water  leading  to  disease     o Despite  setbacks  the  settlers  built  Jamestown     ▯ The  first  permanent  English  settlement  in  US   • Powhatan  tribe  was  here  with  nearly  10,000  natives     o Hunted   o Raised  corn,  beans,  squash,  and  sunflowers     • Jamestown  was  profit  seeking  backed  by  investors     o Less  than  ½  of  colonists  survived  the  first  nine  months     • John  smith  took  charge  and  navigated  Indian  diplomacy     o Pocahontas  saved  his  life   ▯ She  later  married  another  colonist  John  Rolfe  and  died  in  England     • Powhatan  kept  the  English  alive  the  first  winter     • 1609  400  settlers  arrived  and  Jamestown  had  a  starving  period     o Supplies  were  lost  at  sea  and  relationships  with  Indians  were   deteriorating     o Even  dug  up  graves  to  eat  remains     o All  but  60  settlers  would  die  by  the  summer  of  1610     • 1614  the  marriage  of  john  Rolfe  and  Pocahontas  eased  relations  between   settlers  and  natives     • Tobacco  saved  Johnstown   o 1616  John  Rolfe  crossed  tobacco  strains  from  Trinidad  and  Guiana  and   planted  Virginia’s  first  tobacco  crop     o Within  15  years  colonists  were  exporting  500,000  pounds  of  tobacco  per   year     • Young,  male,  indentures  servants  came  in  droves     o Not  enough  of  them  for  labor  so  the  colonies  created  “headright  policy”  in   1618   ▯ Any  person  who  migrated  to  VA  would  automatically  receive  50   acres  of  land  and  any  immigrant  whose  passage  they  paid  would   entitle  them  to  50  more  acres   • 1619  southern  slavery  was  born     • Powhatan  died  in  1622  and  was  succeeded  by  his  brother  Opechancanough     o Launched  a  surprise  attack  killing  347  colonists     o Settlers  retaliated  and  then  some     ▯ Disease  also  killed  many  Indians     • English  colonists  believed  they  were  superior  to  native  peoples  in  North  America     o Christianity,  metallurgy,  intensive  agriculture,  trans-­‐atlantic  navigation,   and  wheat     • Englishmen  equated  Africans  with  blackness  and  blackness  with  sin     • Yet,  in  the  early  years  of  slavery,  ideas  of  race  were  not  yet  fixed     o Initially  they  could  work  toward  freedom     New  England   • Puritans  dominated  the  politics,  religion,  and  culture  of  New  England     • Puritans  believed  church  of  England  did  not  distance  itself  far  enough  from   Catholicism     o Believed  fate  of  an  individuals  immortal  soul  was  predestined     ▯ If  you  were  selected  you  were  Elect   • Puritans  understood  themselves  as  advocating  a  reasonable  middle  path  in  a   corrupt  world     • King  Charles  persecuted  the  Puritans     o 20,000  people  migrated  to  New  England  between  1630-­‐1640   • John  Winthrop  claimed  puritans  were  forming  a  godly  community  in  America   “Shining  City  on  a  Hill”     o Did  not  seek  to  create  a  haven  of  religious  toleration     • Colonists  in  New  England  typically  arrived  in  family  groups   o Land  was  bad  so  they  never  needed  slaves  for  mass  crops     • New  England  made  money  from  small  farms,  shops,  fishing,  lumber,  shipbuilding   and  trade     • Had  remarkable  healthy  and  stability     o Local  Indians  had  suffered  from  smallpox  and  so  survivals  welcomed   English  as  allies  against  rival  tribes     • Population  grew  from  21,000  to  91,000   • Town  restricted  membership  and  new  arrivals  needed  to  apply  for  admission     o All  male  property  holders  could  vote  in  town  meetings  and  choose   leaders  in  government       Chapter  2  supplemental   Richard  Hakluyt  makes  the  case  for  English  colonization,  1584   • Used  to  convince  Queen  Elizabeth  I  to  devote  more  money/energy  into   encouraging  English  colonization   • Enlarge  the  gospel  of  Christ   • Other  people  will  see  the  strength  of  the  crown  and  pledge  obedience     • It  will  open  access  to  Europe,  Africa,  and  asia  for  trade   • Will  provide  employment   • ????   • In  order  to  secure  seas  for  safe  travel   • Want  to  show  that  they  are  as  good  as  other  countries   • To  shed  light  that  spain  is  not  as  strong  as  everyone  imagines   • To  gain  land  along  the  sea  coast   • Declaration  of  the  chief  islands  in  the  bay  of  mexico  being  under  the  Spanish  king   • The  Spaniards  have  executed  most  outrageous  and  more  than  Turkish  cruelties   in  all  the  west  indies   • The  voyage  is  easy  and  short     • Revenues  and  customs  will  bring  more  money  without  hurting  citizens     • Will  help  navy,  trading  and  more  occupations   • We  must  colonize  before  other  countries  do   • Keep  England  strong  and  colonies  from  shame  and  dishonor   • To  explore  the  world  and  learn     • To  prove  that  the  queen  of  England  is  more  lawful  and  right  than  the  Spaniards   • To  refute  the  bull  of  dominion  by  the  pope  which  says  the  land  is  granted  to   Spain     • Note  of  things  to  be  prepared  for  the  voyage   John  Winthrop  dreams  of  a  city  on  a  hill,  1630   • Delivered  the  following  sermon  before  he  and  his  settlers  reached  New  England     o Famous  for  phrase  “a  city  on  a  hill”  to  prove  it  can  be  an  example  to  the   world     • 1  reason:  there  are  more  people  to  do  gods  work   • 2  reason:  restrain  the  wicked  and  protect  the  poor   • 3  reason:  unite  people  under  the  word  of  god     • “For  we  must  consider  that  we  shall  be  as  a  city  upon  a  hill.  The  eyes  of  all  people   are  upon  us.  So  that  if  we  shall  deal  falsely  with  our  God  in  this  work  we  have   undertaken,  and  so  cause  Him  to  withdraw  His  present  help  from  us,  we  shall  be   made  a  story  and  a  by-­‐word  through  the  world.”   • Called  “A  Model  of  Christian  Charity”  by  John  Winthrop     John  Lawson  Encounters  North  American  Indians,  1709   • Notes  of  the  people  he  encountered  on  his  exploration  of  the  Carolinas     • Describes  finding  the  Santees  tribe     o Hired  one  named  Jack  to  be  the  guide  to  the  Congree  Indians     ▯ Paid  in  gifts  and  petticoats     • Describes  much  of  the  landscape     o Water,  mountains,  trees,  “extraordinary  rich  black  mold”   • Kill  deer,  possums,  turkey     • When  they  arrived  there  was  one  man  and  all  women  cause  the  men  were  out   hunting  for  a  feast     A  Gaspesian  Indian  defends  his  way  of  life,  1641   • Chrestien  Le  Clercq  traveled  to  New  France  as  a  missionary  but  found  that   natives  were  not  interested  in  adopting  European  cultural  practices     • Tried  to  convince  Indians  to  build  their  houses  like  Europeans   • Indians  responded  asking  why  men  of  5/6  feet  need  houses  which  are  60-­‐80  ft     • Also  argued  Indians  are  smarter  cause  they  can  carry  houses  wherever  they   want  to  go     • If  Frenchman  say  Indians  are  miserable  then  why  are  the  Frenchman  away  from   home     • Why  are  you  so  dependent  on  cod,  its  pathetic  (asks  the  Indians)     The  Legend  of  Moshup,  1830   • The  Wampanoag  legend  of  Moshup  describes  an  ancient  giant  who  lived  on   Martha’s  Vineyard  Island  and  offered  stories  about  the  history  of  the  region       Chapter  3:  British  North  America   Slavery  and  the  Making  of  Race   • 1706  Reverend  Francis  Le  Jau  arrived  in  Charles  Town,  Carolina   o Was  shocked  by  the  horrors  of  slavery  and  the  new  world     o Most  appalled  by  countrymen’s  behavior     ▯ Encouraged  wars  with  Indians  to  enslave  captives     • 1660’s  were  a  turning  point  for  black  men  and  women  in  English  colonies     o new  laws  gave  legal  sanction  to  the  enslavement  of  people  of  African   descent  for  life     ▯ skin  color  became  important     • One  captain  Thomas  Phillips  didn’t  see  the  importance  of  skin  color,  only  the   proficabilty  of  slavery     • Wars  were  used  to  gain  Native  American  slaves   o The  Pequot  war  there  were  hundreds  of  slaves     • Dutch  sent  war  captives  to  English  settled  Bermuda  as  well  as  curacao   o Barbados  wouldn’t  import  new  England  slaves  for  fear  they  would   encourage  rebellion     • Between  24,000  and  51,000  native  Americans  were  forced  into  slavery   throughout  the  southern  colonies  between  1670  and  1715   o Many  were  exported  through  Charleston     • Native  American  slaves  died  quickly   • Olaudah  Equiano  recalled  the  fearsomeness,  fiflth  and  gloom  of  travelling  the   middle  passage       o Many  suffered  from  dysentery     o Would  lose  so  much  skin  from  chaffing  that  their  bones  would  protrude     • Middle  had  different  meaning  for  whites  and  blacks     • Recent  estimates  believe  11-­‐12  million  Africans  were  forced  across  the  atlantic   between  the  16  and  19  centuries     o 2  million  deaths  at  sea     • Beginning  in  the  1440s  ships  carried  African  slaves  to  Portugal     o Mostly  domestic  servants     • Western  coast  of  Africa,  the  gulf  of  guinea  and  the  west-­‐central  coast  were  the   sources  of  African  captives     • Charleston,  SC  became  hub  for  slave  trade     o Viewed  as  threat  by  neighboring  Spanish  Florida   • 1693  the  Spanish  king  issued  the  decree  of  sanctuary,  granted  freedom  to  slaves   fleeing  the  English  colonies  if  they  converted  to  Catholicism  and  swore  an  oath  of   loyalty  to  Spain       o Allowed  Africans  to  fight  in  Spanish  militia     • Brazil  was  the  most  common  destination  for  slaves     • About  450,000  Africans  came  to  British  North  America   o More  females  than  any  other  colonial  slave  population     ▯ Bore  more  children  then  counterparts     • Law  stated  children  inherited  the  “condition”  of  their  mother   o Children  born  to  slaves  would  be  slaves   • Emergence  of  modern  notions  of  race     o Used  to  be  based  on  geography  not  skin  color     • 1643  there  was  distinction  between  indentured  servant  and  slaves     • Law  passed  so  white  women  would  not  have  to  do  manual  labor     • Work  of  keeping  children  clothed  and  fed  often  fell  to  enslaved  women     o Worked  in  “free  time”  to  produce  clothing,  food,  and   religious/educational  instruction     Turmoil  in  Britain     • Queen  Elizabeth  cemented  Protestantism  as  the  official  religion  of  the  realm     • Between  1629-­‐1640  the  absolute  rule  of  Charles  I  caused  considerable  friction   between  the  English  Parliament  and  the  King     o Civil  war  broke  out  in  1642   o 1649  parliament  won  and  Charles  was  executed     • England  became  a  republic  under  Oliver  Cromwell   o Wanted  to  consolidate  holds  overseas     • English  revolution  forced  colonies  to  reconsider  their  place  within  the  empire     o Older  colonies  liked  the  crown   o Newer  colonies  liked  parliament     o Both  stayed  neutral  during  war  so  they  didn’t  get  dragged  in     • After  execution  6  colonies  sided  with  dead  kings  son   o Parliament  ordered  an  embargo  on  rebelling  colonies     o Followed  embargo  with  Navigation  Act  of  1651,  which  compelled   merchants  in  every  colony  to  ship  goods  directly  to  England     • James  II,  openly  Catholic  and  pro-­‐French  policies  overthrew  monarchy  again  in   1688   • Glorious  Revolution   o Throne  was  offered  to  Dutch  Prince  William  of  Holland  and  English  Bride   Mary   ▯ Daughter  of  James  the  second     • 1675  an  Indian  leader  Metacom,  or  king  Phillip,  led  an  uprising  in  New  England   • Next  year  there  was  a  revolt  against  royal  authorities  called  Bacon’s  rebellion  in   Virginia     o James  II  created  Dominion  of  New  England  in  1686   ▯ Consolidated  colonies  (which  colonies  didn’t  like)     • When  colonists  heard  of  the  Glorious  revolution  they  overthrew  colonial   governments  and  had  animosity  toward  imperial  rule   o Colonists  quickly  declared  allegiance  to  new  monarchs  in  order  to   maintain  stability     • Colonists  launched  several  assaults  against  French  Canada  as  part  of  “King   William’s  War”   • 1689  Parliament  passed  a  Bill  of  Rights     o Curtailed  the  power  of  monarchy  and  cemented  Protestantism  in  England     New  Colonies   • 1632  Charles  I  set  12  million  acres  of  land  at  the  northern  tip  of  the  Chesapeake   Bay  aside  for  second  colony  in  America     o Named  Maryland  after  his  wife  and  given  to  political  ally  Cecilius  Calvert,   the  second  lord  Baltimore   ▯ Calvert  wanted  to  create  a  haven  for  Catholics     • First  settlers  arrived  in  Maryland  in  1634   o Mostly  were  protestants  relocating  from  Virginia     ▯ Many  were  radical  Quakers  and  puritans     • Religion  was  motivating  factor  in  formation  of  Connecticut  and  Rhode  Island  as   well     o Thomas  hooker  left  mass  for  Connecticut  b/c  Boston  was  becoming  too   crowded     ▯ 1638,  John  Davenport,  Theophilus  Eaton  and  other  puritans   settled  on  the  Quinnipiac  area  of  Connecticut  River  Valley     ▯ In  1660s  New  Haven  was  absorbed  into  Connecticut     o Rodger  Williams  left  Mass  to  create  providence  in  1636     ▯ Egalitarian  constitution  and  religious/political  freedom     ▯ Elected  a  president  and  council     • Abolished  witchcraft  trials,  imprisonment  for  debt,  and   chattel  slavery     ▯ Became  haven  for  Quakers,  Jews,  and  other  persecuted  religious   groups     • Swedes  and  Dutch  utilized  land  between  Virginia  and  New  England     o Dutch  formed  New  Amsterdam  on  Manhattan  Island  in  1625   o English  attacked  and  took  land  in  1664   ▯ Named  it  New  York     o Briefly  reconqured  by  Netherlands  in  1667   • Charlies  I  and  the  Duke  of  York  wished  to  use  atlantic  seaboard  to  pay  off  debts   and  favors     o 1644  Duke  of  York  granted  the  area  between  the  Hudson  and  Delaware   rivers  to  two  English  noblemen     ▯ Split  into  east/west  jersey     ▯ West  jersey  was  owned  by  William  Penn  who  wanted  more  land     • Pennsylvania  consisted  of  about  45,000  square  miles  west  of  the  Delaware  river   and  the  former  New  Sweden     o Penn  was  a  Quaker  and  wanted  a  colony  of  harmony     o Many  Quakers  struggled  with  the  idea  of  slavery  because  it  required   violence     ▯ 1688  the  Society  of  friends  in  Germantown,  outside  Philly  signed  a   petition  protesting  the  institution  of  slavery  among  Quakers     • Creation  of  Carolinas  used  the  model  of  Barbados   o Lords  proprietors  offered  incentives  to  attract  colonists:  religious   tolerance,  political  representation  by  assembly,  exemption  from  quitrents   and  large  land  grants     o Colonists  who  came  were  granted  150  acres  per  family     ▯ Allow  slaves  to  be  counted  as  family     o Encouraged  creation  of  large  rice  and  indigo  plantations  across  the  coast   of  Carolina     Riot,  Rebellion,  and  Revolt   • 1637,  armed  English  puritans  went  into  Indian  territory  claimed  by  New   England   o “Sword  of  the  lord”  to  attack  the  Pequots     o Up  to  700  died     • Destroying  the  pequots  provided  security  for  settlers  but  also  propelled  other   Native  tribes,  Mohegan,  to  new  heights     o Later  Mohegan  joined  with  Wampanoag  to  fight  puritans  and  lost  in  King   Philip’s  War  of  1675   • A  Christian  Indian  was  found  dead  and  his  friend  said  Metacom  did  it,  so  the   metacom  Indians  were  executed   o Tribe  retaliated  and  killed  nine  colonists     o Colonists  sprung  into  action  for  war     ▯ War  divided  Indian  communities     • English  attacked  powerful  and  neutral  Narragansetts  of  Rhode  Island  in  1675   o “great  swamp  fight”     • Spring  1676  New  England  the  tide  turned  when  the  settlers  utilized  their  native   allies     • Between  800-­‐1,000  English  and  3,000  Indians  perished  in  the  14-­‐month  conflict     o 1670  Native  Americans  were  25%  of  New  Englands  population   o 10  years  later  they  made  up  less  than  10%   • Bacon’s  Rebellion  came  from  tensions  between  wealthy  land  owners  and  poor   settlers     o Began  with  an  argument  over  a  pig     o Settler  didn’t  have  payment  for  Indians  so  they  stole  pigs   ▯ This  sparked  crossfire  and  accidently  killed  Indians  from  another   tribe   • Other  tribe  came  back  and  killed  settlers     • Sudden  and  unpredictable  violence  triggered  a  political  crisis  in  Virginia       o Gov  Sir  William  Berkely  insisted  on  a  defensive  strategy  around  new   fortifications  to  protect  the  frontier     o Colonists  condemned  Berkely     • By  1676  they  named  Nathaniel  Bacon  their  new  leader  and  took  up  arms  to   protect  their  homes  and  families     o Berkely  branded  these  men  as  traitors  and  sent  an  army  to  stop  them     • Bacon  surrounded  the  State  house  and  Berkely  said  “shoot  me”  then  challenged   him  to  a  duel  when  Bacon  hesitated     o There  was  no  duel  but  eventually  bacon  was  named  general     • For  a  small  group  the  rebellion  was  an  ideological  revolution     • Rebels  steadily  lost  ground  and  ultimately  suffered  defeat   o Bacon  died  of  typhus  in  1676     o Soon  1,000  redcoats  arrived  to  restore  order  in  the  colony     • 1680  the  Spanish  faced  war  too  when  Puebloan  groups  rebelled  and  killed  400,   including  21  Franciscan  Priests,  and  allowed  2,000  spaniards  and  Christian   pueblos  to  flee   o this  was  after  their  religious  leader  had  been  whipped  for  “sorcery”     o Claimed  the  god  of  the  Christians  is  dead     o Spanish  were  exiled  for  12  years     • 1715  The  Yamasees,  Carolina’s  closest  allies  and  most  lucrative  trading  partners   turned  against  the  colony  and  nearly  destroyed  it     o Charles  Town  survived  the  onslaught  by  preserving  alliance  with  the   Cherokees     o After  war  it  was  too  risky  to  trade  Native  slaves  so  they  made  more   importing  Africans     ▯ This  was  the  birth  of  the  “Old  South”     • PA  maintained  relatively  peaceful  relations  with  Native  Americans     o But  as  more  land  was  desired  there  was  fraudulent  methods  of  getting  it     • Walking  Purchase  of  1737:  native  leaders  agreed  to  sell  Penn  all  of  the  land  a   man  could  walk  in  a  day     o Hired  skilled  runners  to  complete  the  “walk”  on  a  prepared  trail.     o Was  much  larger  than  what  Delaware  had  intended  to  sell     o This  event  became  contentious  in  upcoming  7  years  war       Chapter  3  Supplemental   1/26/16   Olaudah  Equiano  describes  the  Middle  Passage,  1789   • Olaudah  Equiano  described  the  terror  of  the  transatlantic  slave  trade   • The  stench  and  close  quarters  on  the  ship  caused  many  to  fall  sick  and  die     o Shrieks  of  women  and  groans  of  dying   • One  day  whites  caught  fish  and  ate  many  and  then  with  the  leftovers  instead  of   sharing  they  threw  them  back  to  the  sea     • Many  would  try  to  jump  into  the  sea     Recruiting  Settlers  to  Carolina,  1666   • Robert  Horne’s  wanted  English  settlers  to  come  to  Carolina     o Wanted  people  from  every  social  class   • There  is  religious  freedom   • There  is  freedom  of  customs     • There  is  free  land  for  people  who  come  over  with  provisions   • Every  indentured  servant  at  the  end  of  their  time  will  get  acres  of  land     • There  is  a  government  but  no  power  to  lay  taxes   • Get  to  elect  people  to  make  laws   Letter  from  Carolina,  1682   • Thomas  Newe’s  account  of  experiences  in  Carolina  offers  contrast  to  Horne’s   prediction  of  what  would  await  settlers   o Deadly  disease,  war  with  Indians,  and  unprepared  colonists     • The  soil  is  not  conducive  to  planting     Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  describes  his  ocean  voyage,  1684   • Journey  across  the  Atlantic  was  difficult  at  best  and  deadly  at  worst   o Left  home  in  Germany  to  go  to  PA   • The  journey  was  dangerous  due  to  shipwreck     • Left  home  in  June  with  6  servants  and  two  children  and  one  young  boy   o Took  10  weeks  to  travel   • No  one  on  his  ship  died  or  was  born   • Many  passengers  got  seasick       • The  rations  on  board  were  very  bad   o 10  persons  received  3  pounds  of  butter  a  week,  four  cans  of  beer  and  two   cans  of  water  a  day,  two  platters  full  of  peas  every  noon,  meat  four   dinners  in  the  week  and  fish  three     Song  about  life  in  Virginia     • Some  English  men  and  women  understood  the  new  world  to  be  a  place  of   opportunity  where  they  could  create  new  lives     • Many  also  believed  that  the  new  world  was  a  place  of  great  danger  and  suffering     • Song  was  written  from  the  perspective  of  a  young  girl  who  was  sent  to  Virginia   against  her  will      


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