Hist 111, Week 2 Notes
Hist 111, Week 2 Notes History 111
Popular in United States History to 1865
Popular in History
This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Stein on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 111 at University of South Carolina taught by Nicole Maskiell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see United States History to 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Chapter 2: Colliding Cultures Intro • The Columbian exchange transformed both sides of the Atlantic • New diseases wiped out entire civilizations in the Americas • While new nutrient rich food enabled a European population boom • Spain benefited from the wealth of the Aztec and Incan Empires • Portugal, France, Netherlands and England all raced to the New World Spanish America • Juan Ponce de Leon arrived in “La Florida” in 1513 o Found 150,000-‐300,000 native Americans • In 1560s Spain expelled French Protestants, called Huguenots, from the area near modern-‐day Jacksonville • 1586 they burned the wooden settlement of St. Augustine • Spanish crown granted missionaries the right to live among villagers and establish settlement through the encomienda system • In the 1630s the mission system extended to the Apalachee district o Grew an abundance of corn and other crops • 1598 Juan de Onate led 400 settlers, soldiers, and missionaries from Mexico into New Mexico o Ordered one foot cut off every surviving male over 15 and he enslaved the remaining women and children • 1610 Santa Fe was established as the first permanent European settlement in the Southwest o People didn’t want to move to a dry and hostile environment • Missionaries provided span with an advance guard in North America Spain’s Rivals Emerge • Reformation threw England and France into turmoil • Reports of Spain’s atrocities spread through Europe and provided humanitarian justification for colonization • Spanish accused the critics of fostering a “Black Legend” o Drew on religious differences and political rivalries • French o French Colonization developed through investment from private trading companies o Needs of fur trade set the future pattern of French colonization o Founded in 1608 under the leadership of Samuel de Champlain, Quebec provided the foothold for what would become New France o Many Protestants (Huguenots) sought to emigrate after france criminalized Protestantism in 1685, but all non Catholics were forbidden in New France o Desire for trade not settlement led to better relations with native people o Many French fur traders married Indian women ▯ Children of mixed parents were so common they created a term, Metis, to describe them o Huron tribe became close to the French but were then decimated by disease and entanglements in French and Dutch conflicts • The Dutch o 1581 the Netherlands had officially broken away from the Hapsburgs and won a reputation as the freest of the new European nations o Dutch women had separate legal identities from their husbands ▯ Could own property and divorce o Greater religious tolerance and freedom than other European nations o Netherlands built colonial empire through work of experienced merchants and skilled sailors ▯ Created innovative financial organizations such as the Amsterdam Stock Exchange and the East India Company o Slavery was an essential part of Dutch capitalist triumphs o 1609 Dutch commissioned the Englishman Henry Hudson to discover the Fabled Northwest Passage through North America ▯ Instead found Hudson river and claimed New York for the Dutch o Not wanting to repeat the black legend the Dutch fashioned guidelines ▯ Insisted land be purchased from natives • However natives didn’t believe in a single person owning land o Dutch sought to profit not to conquer ▯ Traded wampum – shell beads fashioned by Indians o Established farms, settlements, and lumbar camps ▯ Patron system: granted large estates to wealthy landlords, who paid passage for tenants to work the land ▯ Also caused deterioration between relationships with natives ▯ System failed which led to labor shortages th o Practice of African slavery in early 17 century was much less exploitative than later on • The Portuguese o Rivalry between Portuguese and Spanish created a crisis within the Catholic world o Pope intervened and divided the new world with the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 ▯ To the east would be Portugal and to the west would be spain ▯ In return the nations were instructed to treat natives with Christian compassion and bring them under the protection of the church o 2 industries powered early colonial Brazil: sugar and slave trade ▯ There were many gold mines but they weren’t nearly as profitable o Jesuit missionaries brought Christianity to brazil o Escaped slaves created free settlements called quilombos ▯ Were both African and native escaped slaves English Colonization • Wrenching social and economic changes unsettled the English population • Population grew by two million in 100 years and cost of land skyrocketed o ¼ to ½ of the population lived in extreme poverty • Many English colonization supporters claimed to be doing gods work • Wanted to Christianize the New World’s pagan peoples • A Christian enterprise, a blow against Spain, an economic stimulus and social safety valve all beckoned the English toward a commitment to colonization • English merchants collaborated with joint-‐stock companies to improve on the Dutch economic system • 1606 James I approved the formation of the Virginia Company o Named after the virgin queen • Privateering was more successful than colonization o Job was to plunder Spanish shops and towns in America o Transformed crime into politics o Awarded skilled pirates with knighthood • 1588 King Philip II of Spain unleashed the armada and the largest invasion in history to destroy the British navy and depose Elizabeth • England was able to defeat the Armada o Help of “divine wind” • 1587 John White reestablished an abandoned settlement on North Carolina’s Roanoke Island o He went home to England for a few years and when he returned the colony was abandoned o Found the word “Croatan” carved into a tree o Historians believed they may have fled or have faced violence • When Queen Elizabeth died in 1603 there was still no permanent North American colony Jamestown • 1607 the ships – Susan constant, godspeed, and discovery – sailed 40 miles up the James river in present day Virginia o Landed on a peninsula • Peninsula was bad because of terrible soil and brackish water leading to disease o Despite setbacks the settlers built Jamestown ▯ The first permanent English settlement in US • Powhatan tribe was here with nearly 10,000 natives o Hunted o Raised corn, beans, squash, and sunflowers • Jamestown was profit seeking backed by investors o Less than ½ of colonists survived the first nine months • John smith took charge and navigated Indian diplomacy o Pocahontas saved his life ▯ She later married another colonist John Rolfe and died in England • Powhatan kept the English alive the first winter • 1609 400 settlers arrived and Jamestown had a starving period o Supplies were lost at sea and relationships with Indians were deteriorating o Even dug up graves to eat remains o All but 60 settlers would die by the summer of 1610 • 1614 the marriage of john Rolfe and Pocahontas eased relations between settlers and natives • Tobacco saved Johnstown o 1616 John Rolfe crossed tobacco strains from Trinidad and Guiana and planted Virginia’s first tobacco crop o Within 15 years colonists were exporting 500,000 pounds of tobacco per year • Young, male, indentures servants came in droves o Not enough of them for labor so the colonies created “headright policy” in 1618 ▯ Any person who migrated to VA would automatically receive 50 acres of land and any immigrant whose passage they paid would entitle them to 50 more acres • 1619 southern slavery was born • Powhatan died in 1622 and was succeeded by his brother Opechancanough o Launched a surprise attack killing 347 colonists o Settlers retaliated and then some ▯ Disease also killed many Indians • English colonists believed they were superior to native peoples in North America o Christianity, metallurgy, intensive agriculture, trans-‐atlantic navigation, and wheat • Englishmen equated Africans with blackness and blackness with sin • Yet, in the early years of slavery, ideas of race were not yet fixed o Initially they could work toward freedom New England • Puritans dominated the politics, religion, and culture of New England • Puritans believed church of England did not distance itself far enough from Catholicism o Believed fate of an individuals immortal soul was predestined ▯ If you were selected you were Elect • Puritans understood themselves as advocating a reasonable middle path in a corrupt world • King Charles persecuted the Puritans o 20,000 people migrated to New England between 1630-‐1640 • John Winthrop claimed puritans were forming a godly community in America “Shining City on a Hill” o Did not seek to create a haven of religious toleration • Colonists in New England typically arrived in family groups o Land was bad so they never needed slaves for mass crops • New England made money from small farms, shops, fishing, lumber, shipbuilding and trade • Had remarkable healthy and stability o Local Indians had suffered from smallpox and so survivals welcomed English as allies against rival tribes • Population grew from 21,000 to 91,000 • Town restricted membership and new arrivals needed to apply for admission o All male property holders could vote in town meetings and choose leaders in government Chapter 2 supplemental Richard Hakluyt makes the case for English colonization, 1584 • Used to convince Queen Elizabeth I to devote more money/energy into encouraging English colonization • Enlarge the gospel of Christ • Other people will see the strength of the crown and pledge obedience • It will open access to Europe, Africa, and asia for trade • Will provide employment • ???? • In order to secure seas for safe travel • Want to show that they are as good as other countries • To shed light that spain is not as strong as everyone imagines • To gain land along the sea coast • Declaration of the chief islands in the bay of mexico being under the Spanish king • The Spaniards have executed most outrageous and more than Turkish cruelties in all the west indies • The voyage is easy and short • Revenues and customs will bring more money without hurting citizens • Will help navy, trading and more occupations • We must colonize before other countries do • Keep England strong and colonies from shame and dishonor • To explore the world and learn • To prove that the queen of England is more lawful and right than the Spaniards • To refute the bull of dominion by the pope which says the land is granted to Spain • Note of things to be prepared for the voyage John Winthrop dreams of a city on a hill, 1630 • Delivered the following sermon before he and his settlers reached New England o Famous for phrase “a city on a hill” to prove it can be an example to the world • 1 reason: there are more people to do gods work • 2 reason: restrain the wicked and protect the poor • 3 reason: unite people under the word of god • “For we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us. So that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so cause Him to withdraw His present help from us, we shall be made a story and a by-‐word through the world.” • Called “A Model of Christian Charity” by John Winthrop John Lawson Encounters North American Indians, 1709 • Notes of the people he encountered on his exploration of the Carolinas • Describes finding the Santees tribe o Hired one named Jack to be the guide to the Congree Indians ▯ Paid in gifts and petticoats • Describes much of the landscape o Water, mountains, trees, “extraordinary rich black mold” • Kill deer, possums, turkey • When they arrived there was one man and all women cause the men were out hunting for a feast A Gaspesian Indian defends his way of life, 1641 • Chrestien Le Clercq traveled to New France as a missionary but found that natives were not interested in adopting European cultural practices • Tried to convince Indians to build their houses like Europeans • Indians responded asking why men of 5/6 feet need houses which are 60-‐80 ft • Also argued Indians are smarter cause they can carry houses wherever they want to go • If Frenchman say Indians are miserable then why are the Frenchman away from home • Why are you so dependent on cod, its pathetic (asks the Indians) The Legend of Moshup, 1830 • The Wampanoag legend of Moshup describes an ancient giant who lived on Martha’s Vineyard Island and offered stories about the history of the region Chapter 3: British North America Slavery and the Making of Race • 1706 Reverend Francis Le Jau arrived in Charles Town, Carolina o Was shocked by the horrors of slavery and the new world o Most appalled by countrymen’s behavior ▯ Encouraged wars with Indians to enslave captives • 1660’s were a turning point for black men and women in English colonies o new laws gave legal sanction to the enslavement of people of African descent for life ▯ skin color became important • One captain Thomas Phillips didn’t see the importance of skin color, only the proficabilty of slavery • Wars were used to gain Native American slaves o The Pequot war there were hundreds of slaves • Dutch sent war captives to English settled Bermuda as well as curacao o Barbados wouldn’t import new England slaves for fear they would encourage rebellion • Between 24,000 and 51,000 native Americans were forced into slavery throughout the southern colonies between 1670 and 1715 o Many were exported through Charleston • Native American slaves died quickly • Olaudah Equiano recalled the fearsomeness, fiflth and gloom of travelling the middle passage o Many suffered from dysentery o Would lose so much skin from chaffing that their bones would protrude • Middle had different meaning for whites and blacks • Recent estimates believe 11-‐12 million Africans were forced across the atlantic between the 16 and 19 centuries o 2 million deaths at sea • Beginning in the 1440s ships carried African slaves to Portugal o Mostly domestic servants • Western coast of Africa, the gulf of guinea and the west-‐central coast were the sources of African captives • Charleston, SC became hub for slave trade o Viewed as threat by neighboring Spanish Florida • 1693 the Spanish king issued the decree of sanctuary, granted freedom to slaves fleeing the English colonies if they converted to Catholicism and swore an oath of loyalty to Spain o Allowed Africans to fight in Spanish militia • Brazil was the most common destination for slaves • About 450,000 Africans came to British North America o More females than any other colonial slave population ▯ Bore more children then counterparts • Law stated children inherited the “condition” of their mother o Children born to slaves would be slaves • Emergence of modern notions of race o Used to be based on geography not skin color • 1643 there was distinction between indentured servant and slaves • Law passed so white women would not have to do manual labor • Work of keeping children clothed and fed often fell to enslaved women o Worked in “free time” to produce clothing, food, and religious/educational instruction Turmoil in Britain • Queen Elizabeth cemented Protestantism as the official religion of the realm • Between 1629-‐1640 the absolute rule of Charles I caused considerable friction between the English Parliament and the King o Civil war broke out in 1642 o 1649 parliament won and Charles was executed • England became a republic under Oliver Cromwell o Wanted to consolidate holds overseas • English revolution forced colonies to reconsider their place within the empire o Older colonies liked the crown o Newer colonies liked parliament o Both stayed neutral during war so they didn’t get dragged in • After execution 6 colonies sided with dead kings son o Parliament ordered an embargo on rebelling colonies o Followed embargo with Navigation Act of 1651, which compelled merchants in every colony to ship goods directly to England • James II, openly Catholic and pro-‐French policies overthrew monarchy again in 1688 • Glorious Revolution o Throne was offered to Dutch Prince William of Holland and English Bride Mary ▯ Daughter of James the second • 1675 an Indian leader Metacom, or king Phillip, led an uprising in New England • Next year there was a revolt against royal authorities called Bacon’s rebellion in Virginia o James II created Dominion of New England in 1686 ▯ Consolidated colonies (which colonies didn’t like) • When colonists heard of the Glorious revolution they overthrew colonial governments and had animosity toward imperial rule o Colonists quickly declared allegiance to new monarchs in order to maintain stability • Colonists launched several assaults against French Canada as part of “King William’s War” • 1689 Parliament passed a Bill of Rights o Curtailed the power of monarchy and cemented Protestantism in England New Colonies • 1632 Charles I set 12 million acres of land at the northern tip of the Chesapeake Bay aside for second colony in America o Named Maryland after his wife and given to political ally Cecilius Calvert, the second lord Baltimore ▯ Calvert wanted to create a haven for Catholics • First settlers arrived in Maryland in 1634 o Mostly were protestants relocating from Virginia ▯ Many were radical Quakers and puritans • Religion was motivating factor in formation of Connecticut and Rhode Island as well o Thomas hooker left mass for Connecticut b/c Boston was becoming too crowded ▯ 1638, John Davenport, Theophilus Eaton and other puritans settled on the Quinnipiac area of Connecticut River Valley ▯ In 1660s New Haven was absorbed into Connecticut o Rodger Williams left Mass to create providence in 1636 ▯ Egalitarian constitution and religious/political freedom ▯ Elected a president and council • Abolished witchcraft trials, imprisonment for debt, and chattel slavery ▯ Became haven for Quakers, Jews, and other persecuted religious groups • Swedes and Dutch utilized land between Virginia and New England o Dutch formed New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island in 1625 o English attacked and took land in 1664 ▯ Named it New York o Briefly reconqured by Netherlands in 1667 • Charlies I and the Duke of York wished to use atlantic seaboard to pay off debts and favors o 1644 Duke of York granted the area between the Hudson and Delaware rivers to two English noblemen ▯ Split into east/west jersey ▯ West jersey was owned by William Penn who wanted more land • Pennsylvania consisted of about 45,000 square miles west of the Delaware river and the former New Sweden o Penn was a Quaker and wanted a colony of harmony o Many Quakers struggled with the idea of slavery because it required violence ▯ 1688 the Society of friends in Germantown, outside Philly signed a petition protesting the institution of slavery among Quakers • Creation of Carolinas used the model of Barbados o Lords proprietors offered incentives to attract colonists: religious tolerance, political representation by assembly, exemption from quitrents and large land grants o Colonists who came were granted 150 acres per family ▯ Allow slaves to be counted as family o Encouraged creation of large rice and indigo plantations across the coast of Carolina Riot, Rebellion, and Revolt • 1637, armed English puritans went into Indian territory claimed by New England o “Sword of the lord” to attack the Pequots o Up to 700 died • Destroying the pequots provided security for settlers but also propelled other Native tribes, Mohegan, to new heights o Later Mohegan joined with Wampanoag to fight puritans and lost in King Philip’s War of 1675 • A Christian Indian was found dead and his friend said Metacom did it, so the metacom Indians were executed o Tribe retaliated and killed nine colonists o Colonists sprung into action for war ▯ War divided Indian communities • English attacked powerful and neutral Narragansetts of Rhode Island in 1675 o “great swamp fight” • Spring 1676 New England the tide turned when the settlers utilized their native allies • Between 800-‐1,000 English and 3,000 Indians perished in the 14-‐month conflict o 1670 Native Americans were 25% of New Englands population o 10 years later they made up less than 10% • Bacon’s Rebellion came from tensions between wealthy land owners and poor settlers o Began with an argument over a pig o Settler didn’t have payment for Indians so they stole pigs ▯ This sparked crossfire and accidently killed Indians from another tribe • Other tribe came back and killed settlers • Sudden and unpredictable violence triggered a political crisis in Virginia o Gov Sir William Berkely insisted on a defensive strategy around new fortifications to protect the frontier o Colonists condemned Berkely • By 1676 they named Nathaniel Bacon their new leader and took up arms to protect their homes and families o Berkely branded these men as traitors and sent an army to stop them • Bacon surrounded the State house and Berkely said “shoot me” then challenged him to a duel when Bacon hesitated o There was no duel but eventually bacon was named general • For a small group the rebellion was an ideological revolution • Rebels steadily lost ground and ultimately suffered defeat o Bacon died of typhus in 1676 o Soon 1,000 redcoats arrived to restore order in the colony • 1680 the Spanish faced war too when Puebloan groups rebelled and killed 400, including 21 Franciscan Priests, and allowed 2,000 spaniards and Christian pueblos to flee o this was after their religious leader had been whipped for “sorcery” o Claimed the god of the Christians is dead o Spanish were exiled for 12 years • 1715 The Yamasees, Carolina’s closest allies and most lucrative trading partners turned against the colony and nearly destroyed it o Charles Town survived the onslaught by preserving alliance with the Cherokees o After war it was too risky to trade Native slaves so they made more importing Africans ▯ This was the birth of the “Old South” • PA maintained relatively peaceful relations with Native Americans o But as more land was desired there was fraudulent methods of getting it • Walking Purchase of 1737: native leaders agreed to sell Penn all of the land a man could walk in a day o Hired skilled runners to complete the “walk” on a prepared trail. o Was much larger than what Delaware had intended to sell o This event became contentious in upcoming 7 years war Chapter 3 Supplemental 1/26/16 Olaudah Equiano describes the Middle Passage, 1789 • Olaudah Equiano described the terror of the transatlantic slave trade • The stench and close quarters on the ship caused many to fall sick and die o Shrieks of women and groans of dying • One day whites caught fish and ate many and then with the leftovers instead of sharing they threw them back to the sea • Many would try to jump into the sea Recruiting Settlers to Carolina, 1666 • Robert Horne’s wanted English settlers to come to Carolina o Wanted people from every social class • There is religious freedom • There is freedom of customs • There is free land for people who come over with provisions • Every indentured servant at the end of their time will get acres of land • There is a government but no power to lay taxes • Get to elect people to make laws Letter from Carolina, 1682 • Thomas Newe’s account of experiences in Carolina offers contrast to Horne’s prediction of what would await settlers o Deadly disease, war with Indians, and unprepared colonists • The soil is not conducive to planting Francis Daniel Pastorius describes his ocean voyage, 1684 • Journey across the Atlantic was difficult at best and deadly at worst o Left home in Germany to go to PA • The journey was dangerous due to shipwreck • Left home in June with 6 servants and two children and one young boy o Took 10 weeks to travel • No one on his ship died or was born • Many passengers got seasick • The rations on board were very bad o 10 persons received 3 pounds of butter a week, four cans of beer and two cans of water a day, two platters full of peas every noon, meat four dinners in the week and fish three Song about life in Virginia • Some English men and women understood the new world to be a place of opportunity where they could create new lives • Many also believed that the new world was a place of great danger and suffering • Song was written from the perspective of a young girl who was sent to Virginia against her will
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