Week Three Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Gibson on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3330 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Alley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Recent Research Methods & Findings I. Inattentional Blindness A. Neisser & Becklen (1975) – showed simultaneous, superimposed videos. - People could follow one but not both of them this isn’t because they are inattentive, they are just paying attention to something specific this is called Inattentional Blindness because you’re perfectly alert and it’s right in front of you, but you don’t see it - unattended events often go unnoticed (auditory or visual) people might be very unaware of the limitations they have in attention inattentional blindness: unattended events/objects are not consciously noticed B. Change Blindness (see Matlin, p.76) example 1: when brief blanks are placed between alternating displays of an original and a changed scene, (uncued) ID of the change is very difficult even when a large change is repeatedly shown. [also found for changes that occur during a saccade] example 2: a gradual change in a scene is often missed unless you just happen to have your attention at the right place at the right times example 3: Simons & Levin (1994) – (1) “lost” person asks passerby for directions; (2) interrupted by 2 workers carrying a door; (3) lost person switches places with 2 worker as they pass Þ ~50% didn’t notice that person is different despite changes in clothes, voice, etc.! “visual perception of change in a scene occurs only when focused attention is given to the part being changed. … In the absence of focused attention, the contents of visual memory are simply overwritten (i.e., replaced) by subsequent stimuli and so cannot be used to make comparisons” (Rensink et al., 1997, PsychSci.). · People can be unaware of major changes that occur during a blink, an eye movement, or some distracting event. eyes move so fast that you are effectively blind for a moment while you move them · People are unaware that they have these limitations · blindness may be greatest at the center of gaze (these types of blindness might be worse at the center of your vision) · may be overconfident in tasks monitored by humans. conclusion: without focusing your attention on something, you won’t notice changes or even basic features II. Attentional Blink – when 2 targets are presented in rapid sequence (ISI <.8 sec.), later (2 , 3 or 4 ) target is often missed. st Detecting and noting the 1 target can temporarily preempt awareness for other targets. they flash a bunch of letters and tell you to look for R then C you might see the R, but then miss the C may explain accidents in tasks involving rapid sequential monitoring (e.g., driving; flying; quality control) maybe they notice the traffic light above them and don’t the brake lights of the car in front of them III. Mindless Reading – ‘reading’ without attention. IV. Divided Attention & Dual-Task Performance We often seem able to do 2 things at once in everyday life (e.g., listen + take notes) or in certain occupations (e.g., singing while playing keyboard, sign language interpreters), but lab studies typically indicate performance problems (e.g. texting and driving). Difference? 1) rapid switching of attention is pseudo-multitasking 2) are performance decrements noticed? they may not be on the everyday basis in the lab, there is limited practice if any on the things they are asking you to divide your attention between Spelke, Hirst & Neisser (1976) - had college students read + write down spoken words if our attention was properly divided, they would be able to read and write the words just like they normally would Initially à lower reading speed & illegible handwriting, but ... 6 wks later (29 hours of practice) à usual reading speed (w/ good comprehension) & better handwriting, but still couldn't recall most dictated words. ... more practice (S = 85 sessions) à better word recall and even ability to categorize dictated words or write the category of a word rather than the word itself. Most tasks are "controlled" – we must pay attention if we are to execute them properly. E.g., reading is an “automatic” response to words [à Stroop effect(s)? stroop effect: read the color of the word, not the word itself stroop effect is that we automatically read the word up there, we naturally do that and it appears to require no attention or effort this could be good because if we don’t need attention for things we are well practiced at, it frees up attention for other things (think about playing basketball, once you know how to dribble, figuring out where to pass and shoot is easier) Note: skills may not become completely automatic; thus, they will continue to be a burden in dual- (or multi-) task situations. DUAL-TASK PERFORMANCE The study of divided attention has concentrated on dual-task performance, in which the ability to perform two tasks together is studied under various conditions. Such studies have found three main factors that affect dual-task performance: 1. Practice: without practice, dual-task performance isn’t going to happen unless it’s really really trivial 2. Task similarity - dual-task performance is greatly improved when the two tasks are dissimilar (e.g., in different sensory modalities) (talking and driving) (make an alarm auditory and visual) 3. Task difficulty: in general, as the task gets more and more difficult you will be less able to combine it with other tasks ATTENTION: Some General Conclusions A. Selective Attention 1. we often have no memory for ignored stimuli when the selection criterion is an easily discriminable physical attribute (e.g., pitch or location). 2. difficulty of selection depends on discriminability. 3. unattended stimuli are not fully analyzed. B. Divided Attention 1. Parallel capacity seems possible in some circumstances, such as a visual search for targets that differ from non-targets on a simple featural dimension (e.g., color). 2. Capacity limits are evident when a task requires complex or difficult discriminations. 3. Detection of a target impairs one’s ability to detect other targets for a short time thereafter.
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