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Week 1 Lecture Notes

by: Ashley Albers

Week 1 Lecture Notes Hist 1200

Ashley Albers
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About this Document

the first two lectures including the introduction
Survey of American History Since 1865
Steven Watts
Class Notes
history, civil war




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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Albers on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1200 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Steven Watts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History Since 1865 in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
History Introduction History: a process of change over time What history does?  Tells us a lot about human beings and human affairs o History is really a kind of laboratory for looking at human beings  What makes them who they are?  What puts them ahead? o Tells us a lot about human nature  History doesn’t repeat itself, it produces the present o The world we were born into is a result of a historical process (product of history)  To understand the world you live in, history is a good way of understand how and why Nineteenth Century: Society and Culture I. Market economy and society a. The market revolution: was a transformative event that profoundly changed the nature of American life; happened roughly about 1790-1830; changed both economic and social structure of our society b. The market is an economic and social system i. System where people pursue their self interest ii. Where all goods, all services, all labor have a monetary value fixed to it and a market arrangement iii. In the market people tend to interact with one another and confront one another as free competing individuals c. The market achieved a position of dominance in this time period and begins to define the nature of life in these decades d. Pre-market economic affairs (1600s/1700s) i. In the U.S. a household economy dominated with task oriented work 1. Household economy: very localized economy, self sustaining, goods are produced in consumed in households, most of the time farms; subsistence farming (enough to get buy, no surplus) very community oriented as opposed to individually oriented; predominantly agricultural 2. Task oriented work: (modernly work is defined by time, hourly wage, hours of work) agriculture economy required task oriented work, the task at hand is all that matters at the time, labor goes up and down (harder work depending on the time of year) ii. As the market revolution began: 1. All the stuff made in the market place is to make a commodity or make a profit rather than subsistence a. Farmers begin growing crops for profit 2. Growing notion away from community to individual success; selling stuff and getting a profit 3. What you see growing more and more is time oriented work (time is money, working hours for a wage) 4. Industrialization; because industry is how you make stuff in the market profitable and successful e. Pre-market society social systems i. Historians define in terms of paternalism, society seen as extension of family 1. Paternalism: based on the family, colonial people thought about society as an extension of the family with the paternal figure of the household at the top of the hierarchy (man took the lead on the farm, took the lead of the household) underneath him was the wife and beneath her were children and apprentices as well as servants (very clear hierarchical system or pyramid system) a. Colonial new England: town councils (males in council when they died their sons took over b. Colonial Virginia: leading land owners were in command and when they died eldest son took over 2. Deference: people lower on the social level and lower in the family they deferred to the authority of the family a. Evident in manors, take a small bow in respect for authority on the street ii. Community oriented again, understood and defined on local context iii. The market revolution began to change that with: 1. A social commitment to individualism, the deference and paternalism didn’t fit very well, working competing and striving in a fluid situation, a rough equality of individuals 2. No longer deference that is making society work but increasingly contracts; making modern society work a. Contracts: legal binding agreements between or among individuals (if you do this, I will pay you this; etc.) 3. Opportunity is emerging, opportunity for individual advancement 4. Distrust also emerging, if everyone is trying to get ahead if everyone is working or scheming to get ahead how can you trust people? Have to be sure they’ll hold up the contract, keep an eye on them to protect your own interest f. With a market revolution two things to keep in mind: i. Consequence: what we tend to think of as social class 1. Some people get ahead some people fall behind; so we tend to see social class configurations (some people doing well some people not so much) ii. Resistance: a lot of people promoted market but a lot of other people resisted and dug in their heels (becomes market dynamic) g. Market system begins to create two cultures: i. Victorian Culture ii. Working Class Culture II. Victorian culture a. Culture of those who tended to be successful in the market economy i. Business men, merchants who tended to do well b. Idea and concepts they talked about that they loved was individualisms i. Self-made man: individual who used his labor, brains, time and money in some enterprise and pulled himself ahead by his bootstraps ii. Self-control: controlling your own destiny of life (fate); more often meant self-control in terms of getting a grip on your emotions, appetites, passions so they don’t run a muck (repression/ repressing your emotion or impulses) 1. Believed that to get ahead you couldn’t lose your temper or follow your impulses you had to follow a straight and narrow path c. A lot of the time focused on men competing in the workplace and sex i. Victorians obsessed with men controlling sexual appetites ii. Sylvester Graham: invented graham cracker; writing advice literature to young men and telling them how and how not to act to get ahead 1. Favorite theme of his was sexual self control: they had to get their sexual appetites under control 2. Sexual appetite for unmarried men was poison and if you had premarital sex you would be led astray and not be successful in life; but even for married men a good rule was only having sex with your wife 12 times a year d. Domesticity: family life and home life i. “A haven in a heartless world”: market world is one of brutal competition and for them the home should be the opposite rather a haven for love, benevolence and kindness ii. Women dominated and were beacons of domesticity 1. Catherine Beecher: home was the moral center where love and kindness would be instilled in children and husband; woman’s goal to instill moral values iii. Christian Gentleman: guy who does everything to get ahead in the market place but when at home knuckles under to the moral leadership of the wife iv. True woman: sweet asexual morally commanding figure who would never dream of competing in market place but at home is the commander III. Working class culture a. Remains community oriented and remains skeptical b. World of work and labor i. Loyalty remaining to old fashion definitions of work; task oriented labor; hold onto and defend well into the 19 century; c. Resistance to the ongoing momentum of the market place i. St. Monday: an old habit of having a really good time on the weekend, drinking partying etc. and waking up on Monday with headache and not going to work and called it a St. Monday as people would sometimes not go to work ii. Working class people not going along with self control; playing dice games, boxing, drinking, being noisy, and all the things that ran against Victorian society iii. Temperance: consumption of alcohol, Victorians are against drinking (demon rum) self control; working class resisted the temperance crusade Terms Market revolution Household economy Task oriented work Time oriented work Paternalism Self-made man Self-control Domesticity Sylvester Graham Catherine Beecher, Treatise on Domestic Economy Christian gentleman True woman St. Monday Temperance The T rauma of the Civil War Americans in a lot ways are preoccupied with the civil war, its seen everywhere like in reenactments, vacations to battlefields, books, etc. It’s become kind of a fabric of American culture. Even with all the death and violence we still see the civil war as a type of patriotism. I. Sectional Divisions a. In the middle of the 1800s the U.S. was greatly divided over the Mason Dixon line over slavery. b. Northern Section i. By mid 1800s the north was a region dominated by Victorian values, market revolution, individualism, self control, etc. this value system attracted the royalty of northerners 1. Republican party: formed in early 1850s as a northern political party, a party of Christian gentlemen, inhabited by people like William Sewer and Abraham Lincoln, etc. 2. Political ideology Free Labor: a kind of notion that northerners believed that the individuals capacity to use their own labor was the basis of getting ahead in life and is the essence of all other things in life (essential to socialism, individualism) became to calling card of the republican party a. Becomes the tool to criticize slavery c. Southern Section i. More complicated and more complex ii. Southern society in the 1850s was dominated by the Planter Elite (great power and dominance of big farmers, plantation owners, slave owners) Cotton kingdom, most of the big farmers produced cotton iii. With the planter elite they were entangled in the market place especially the international market place with Britain and France, they were more industrialized and the southern states were the cotton suppliers for the textile industries in Europe (interested in profit) 1. Ostend Manifesto – came to life in the 1950s and was by and large a plan put together by southern leaders; was a blueprint for expanding southern slavery into Mexico and South America, needed to expand to be even more successful (became great controversy in the north) a. One thing kept them from leaping into this 100% was the fact that they owned slaves, ran against the idea of market individualism (slaves provided the labor and they could not be free competing individuals in the market system, but slavery was an important mechanism on the plantation elites power over the smaller farms in the south) b. Dealt with this by envisioning “the good society”, based on paternalism, made paternalism the basis of southern life, argued that the good society was a paternal one with the hierarchical structure and southern slave owners were paternal figures in the south; they articulated that southern paternalism is where the strong look out for the weak (logic for slavery) i. Plantation Novels – fictional works about life on southern plantations, without fail you always saw a picture of the southern plantation being happy, stable, a sort of paternal utopia (a kind of moonlight and magnolia vision of the south) slave owners were the fathers; the basis of later books such as Gone with the Wind II. Coming of the War a. Causes of the American civil war continue to be a ranging fate among historians, lots of different theories and stories varying between economic causes vs. constitutional causes b. A clash of social values, the Victorian North versus the very paternal South. c. By the 1850s a very powerful and increasingly angry northern critic of the south and southern slavery. The north was in an anti-slavery stance i. Didn’t like slavery because it was a violation of the principle of free labor ii. Northerners thought it violated the Victorian standards of self-control (the instances of white slave owners beating their slaves, sexual misconduct on plantations) iii. Violation of domestic ideal – families being broken up by slaves being traded among plantations iv. Uncle Tom’s Cabin – was a novel written in 1850s by Harriet Beecher Stowe; written as a story about plantation life in the south but it pushed every button the northerners had about slavery in southern society, it was about the hard lives of slaves and their families broken up with instances of abuse and beatings 1. “Little lady who brought upon this great big war” d. South launched their own attacks on the north i. Southerners criticized the north as being a place of crass materialism, a kind of market selfishness, people chased selfishness ii. Northern society was so addicted to individualism that anarchy was right around the corner 1. George Fitzhugh, Cannibals All! – Fitzhugh was a southern intellectual who wrote this book as a critique of the north saying that northern society was a society of cannibals, cannibals of the market place, you would be run under at any opportunity; so he supported paternalism and the strong protecting the week a. “Northern society was infected with wage slaver” northerners criticized African slaves but that the north had wage slaver in the factories which was worse because in the south they fed and housed the slaves but the northerners paid them bare minimum then threw them out on the ash heap e. The war was detonated when the two big issues of mid 1800s, slavery and westward expansion got all tangled up with one another. When they got all tangled up it became an explosive situation i. “Slavery in the Territories” will the new states be slave states or free states ii. Bleeding Kansas – mid 1850s the territory of Kansas had filled with people that it had applied to be a state and it had to be decided slave or free; a mess erupted in Kansas and southerners and northerners poured into Kansas to try and influence the vote and you had armed mobs/gangs for pro slavery or anti slavery that were terrorizing and shooting the population trying to influence and essentially its never settled and its so extreme that John Brown decides it’ll only be settled that he goes east and takes federal and announces slave rebellion and he’s hung for treason. iii. Lincoln is elected in 1860 and the south begins to secede as it sees it has no place in the union so there is no peaceful way to settle it III. Impact of the War a. North wins and the south loses over a four year period 1861-65 i. The devastation of human life was staggering, in a small population there were 360,000 casualties on the union side and 260,000 casualties on the confederate side (population much much smaller then today) ii. Triumph of Victorian values, triumph of market values iii. Mass production - The war was devastating to the south and to human life but the north was a boost to economic growth in the north because of the need for supplies and factories 1. Singer Sewing Company – making uniforms for the northern troops, explosion of demand so they rose very high on the economic ladder b. Southern society is in shambles at the end of the civil war, white society is tremendously bitter about losing war, losing slavery, and the downfall of their economy, they are also bitter particularly of the destruction of paternalism, resentful of the Yankees for tearing apart paternalism and setting slaves free. i. For African Americans in the south is an ambiguous event 1. Euphoric about the end of slavery and hopeful for the future 2. But along with jubilation they faced the fact of being thrown out on their own resources and they had to make good without money, property, education, and they faced a white society deeply resentful of them How could slaves make their own way in a society that was so resentful to ex-slaves? (Lead to Booker T Washington) Terms Republican party Free Labor Ostend Manifesto Paternalism Plantation Novels Uncle Tom’s Cabin George Fitzhugh, Cannibals All! “Slavery in the Territories” Bleeding Kansas Mass Production Singer Sewing Company “Total War”


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