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A&P Week1.pdf

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by: Gabby Notetaker

A&P Week1.pdf 1334

Gabby Notetaker
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Note: This class meets once a week.
Anatomy and Physiology 1
Class Notes




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"I'm pretty sure these materials are like the Rosetta Stone of note taking. Thanks Gabby!!!"

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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabby Notetaker on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1334 at NYU School of Medicine taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Science at NYU School of Medicine.


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I'm pretty sure these materials are like the Rosetta Stone of note taking. Thanks Gabby!!!



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Date Created: 01/28/16
The Human Body: An Orientation   ● Anatomy: ​ structure of the parts that make up the body   ● Physiology:​  function of those parts and how they work together   ● Parts of the Heart:    ○ Pulmonary Trunk   ○ Superior Vena Cava   ○ Ascending Aorta   ○ Right Atrium   ○ Left Ventricle   ○ Right Ventricle   ○ Inferior Vena Cava   ○ Descending Aorta   ● Survival Needs:   ○ Nutrients: ​chemicals for energy and cell building (carbohydrates,  proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals)   ○ Oxygen: ​ required for every cell in the body   ● Homeostasis​ : maintenance of a balanced environment    ○ Dynamic state of equilibrium   ○ Necessary to sustain life    ○ Built in responsive systems    ○ Homeostatic imbalance or disturbance leads to disease    ● Feedback Mechanisms    ■ Negative Feedback: reduces stimulus intensity   ■ Positive Feedback: increases stimulus intensity (ie. blood clotting,  child­ birth)   Language of Anatomy (pg. 15)   ● Used for position, direction, regions, structures   ○ Superior   ○ Inferior   ○ Ventral   ○ Dorsal   ○ Medial   ○ Lateral   ○ Intermediate   ○ Proximal   ○ Distal   ○ Superficial   ○ Deep    *Anatomical Position: standing with palms of hands facing forward   *206 bones in the human body   ● Midsagittal Plane (Median)    ● Coronal Plane (Frontal)   ● Transverse Plane   ● Dorsal Body Cavity    ○ House of the Brain: cranial cavity   ○ House of the Spinal Cord: spinal cavity   ● Ventral Body Cavity    ○ House of the Heart, Lungs and others: thoracic cavity   ○ House of the Digestive System & most Urinary System organs:  abdominopelvic cavity   Cells and Tissues    ● Nucleus:​  home of DNA (contains genes)   ● Genes: ​ control aspects of cellular structure and function   ● Anatomy of the Cell   ○ 3 main regions: nucleus, cytoplasm, plasma membrane   ○ Extracellular: outside the cell   ○ Intracellular: inside the cell   ○ Intravascular: inside the vascular system   ● Cytoplasmic Organelles   ○ ER: Endoplasmic Reticulum    ■ Rough ER (includes ribosomes)   ■ Smooth ER   ○ Golgi Apparatus: storage of synthesized products   ○ Peroxisomes    ■ Detoxifies harmful substances (ie. Alcohol)   ■ Breaks down highly reactive chemicals    ○ Lysosomes   ■ contains enzymes produced by ribosomes   ■ Digests non­usable materials in cell   ○ Cytoskeleton   ■ Fine protein filaments or tubes    ■ Strength & support    ■ Intracellular movement of structures & materials    ○ Solutions and Transport   ■ Solution: homogeneous mixture   ● Solvent: dissolving medium   ● Solutes: components in smaller quantities in a solution   ● Intracellular fluid: nucleoplasm and cytosol   ● Interstitial fluid: fluid on exterior of cells    ○ Mitochondria "powerhouse"   ■ Produces 95% of cellular ATP (energy)   ■ Needs sugar   ■ Active process occurs   ○ Plasma Membrane   ■ Controls   ● Entry of ions & nutrients   ● Eliminates wastes   ● Releases secretions   Cell Physiology: Membrane Transport   ● Two methods of transport   ○ Passive processes   ■ No energy needed   ■ Diffusion: ​ particles distribute within a solution   ● Movement: high concentration to low concentration   ■ Simple Diffusion: ​ substances move freely (Iie. oxygen, carbon  dioxide   ○ Active processes    ■ Energy required (ATP), energizes protein carriers (solute pumps)   ■ Active transport (solute pumping)   ■ Amino acids, breakdown of protein   Osmosis (osmos, a shift)   ■ Overall similar concentrations between cytosol & extracellular  fluid    ● Osmotic Pressure   ○ Indication of force of pure water moving into  solution with higher solute concentration   ● Osmolarity (osmotic concentration)   ○ Total solute concentration   ● Tonicity   ○ Effect of osmotic solutions on cell volume    


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