Class Note for MIC 205A at UA 2
Class Note for MIC 205A at UA 2
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Microbe of the Week Pseudomonas aeruginosa The Genus Pseudomonas I Gram negative obligate freeliving aerobic organisms often in water I Can oxidize many organic compounds to obtain energy I Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a human pathogen Microbe of the Week Pseudomonas aeruginosa An opportunistic pathogen from the environment infecting I Burn patients I Cystic brosis patients I Immunecompromised patients I Medically compromised hospitalized patients A naturaly antibioticresistant organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa An opportunistic pathogen from the HOT TUB 39 Causing Folliculits Microbial Metabolism Cellular Respiration and Fermentation What happens after glycolysis mil 65m Amrw mm lnnclwm Well What happens after glycolysis I After glucose is broken down to pyruvic acid pyruvic acid can be channeled into either I Aerobic Respiration OR Fermentation IAerobic respiration Usesthe TCA cycle and electmn transpurt chaln Flnal electan acceptur l 02 IAnaerobic respiration Usesthe TCA cycle and unly PART ufthe electan transpurt Ehalrl Flnal electan acceptur lS an lrlurgarllc mulecule Either than or llke nltrate ur sulfate Aerobic Respiration I Tricarboxylic acid TCA cycle I Kreb s cycle or citric acid cycle I A large amount of potential energy stored in acetyl CoA is released by a series of redox reactions that transfer electrons to the electron carrier coenzymes NAD and FAD Acetyl CoA I Where does it come from I Pyruvic acid from glycolysis is converted to a 2carbon acetyl group compound decarboxylation I The acetyl group then combines with Pym Coenzyme A through a Wquot v quotA high energy bond jgm I reduced to A3393 TCA cycle I For every molecule of glucose 2 acetyl m CoA the TCA 3 cycle generates 4 co2 I 6 NADH 2 FADHZ 2 ATP Where to now I All the reduced coenzyme electron carriers make their way to the electron transport chain I 2 NADH 39om glycolysis I 2 NADH 39om pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA conversion I 6 NADH and 2 FADHZ 39om the TCA cycle I The electron transport chain indirectly transfers the energy from these coenzymes to ATP The electron transport chain I Sequence of carrier molecules capable of oxidation and reduction I Electrons are passed down the chain in a sequential and orderly fashion I Energy is released from the ow of electrons down the chain I This release of energy is coupled to the generation ATP by oxidative phosphorylation Membrane location of the ETC I The electron transport chain is located in I the inner membrane ofthe mitochondria of eukaryotes I the plasma membrane of prokaryotes quotQa The ETC players I Three classes of ETC carrier molecules I Flavoproteins I Contain a coenzyme derived from ribo avin I Capable of alternating oxidationsreductions l Flavin mononucleotide FMN I Cytochromes I Have an ironcontaining group heme which can exist in alternating reduced Fez and oxidized Fe3 forms I Coenzyme Q Ubiquinone I Small non protein carrier molecule Are all ETCs the same I Bacterial electron transport chains are diverse I Particular carriers and their order I Some bacteria may have several types of electron transport chains I Eukaryotic electron transport chain is more uni ed and better described I All have the same goal to capture energy into ATP The mitochondrial ETC Tne enzyme cumpiex NADH denydrpgenase starts tne prpeess py denydrpgenatrng NADH and transferring rts rgn energy eieetrpns tn rts epenzyme FMN lntum tne eieetrpns are transferred duvvntne namrrum FMN tn a tu eytpenrpme p Eieetrpns are tnen passed frum eytuenrume p to e1 to e to a and a3 Witn eaen eytuenrume redueed as rt garns eieetruns and uxidized as t luses eieetruns 02 the terminal electron acceptor I Finally cytochrome a3 passes its electrons to 02 which picks up protons to form H20 How is ATP generated I Electron transfer down the chain is accompanied at several points by the active pumping of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane I This transfer of protons is used to generate ATP by chemiosmosis as the protons move back across the membrane The ETC sets up a proton gradient As energetro electrons are passed down tne ETC some oarners proton pumps activeiypump H aoross tne membrane I Proton motive force results from an excess of protons on one side ottne membrane Generation of ATP by chemiosmosis I Protons can only diffuse back along the gradient through special protein channels that contain the enzyme ATP synthase F0 I ATP synthase F0 uses the energy released by the diffusion of H across the membrane to synthesize ATP from ADP m NADH gt 3ATP FADH2 2ATP Anaerobic Respiration I Like aerobic respiration it involves glycolysis the Aerobic Respiration I Complete oxidation of1 glucose molecule generates 38 ATP in TCA cycle and an electron transport chain but prokaryotes I The nal electron acceptor is an inorganic molecule other than 02 I 2 from each of colysis I Some bacteria use N0339 and produce either N01 N20 or NZ Enigbfggrrgt hlzvel A cycle 25 Pseudomonas and Bacillus pKosphoryla on mug I Desullovibrio use SOf39to form HIS I Methanogens use carbonate to form methane I The amount of ATP generated varies with the pathway I Only part ofthe TCA cycle operates under anaerobic conditions I Not all ETC carriers participate in anaerobic respiration m I ATP yield never as high as aerobic respiration 6 up I 34 from oxidative phos hor Iation as a resul of 0 NADH and 2 FADH2 from glycolysis and the TCA cycle Fermentation Fermentation I Uses Glycolysis but does not use the TCA cycle or Electron Transport Chain I Releases energy from sugars or other organic molecules but only 2 ATP for each glucose I Does not use 02 0 or inorganic electron acceptors I Uses an organic molecule as the final electron 39 Ensures recyding 0f NAD for 9YC YiS acceptor I Produces only small amounts of ATP and most of the energy remains in the organic end product I In fermentation pyruvic acid or its derivatives are reduced by NADH to fermentation end products Why bother with fermentation I Fermenting bacteria can grow as fast as those using aerobic respiration by markedly increasing the rate of glycolysis I Fermentation permits independence from molecular oxygen and allows colonization of anaerobic environments Types of fermentation mam ye aw Glucose Acid Fermentation Homolactic I Only lactic acid I Streptococcus and Lactobacillus Heterolactic I Mixture of lactic acid acetic acid and CO2 I Can result in food spoilage I Can produce I Yogurt I Sauerkraut I Pickles Bring on the good stuff I Alcohol fermentation by the yeast Saccharomyces is responsible for some of the better things in life I CO2 produced causes bread to rise I Ethanol is used in alcoholic beverages End products of fermentation Aceuc acld Glucanabacler Claslnmum Elhanol Yeasls co H Proteus SlrsplocavcusLaclabacallus I SEE Acalylmelhylcalhinol Succmm add Acmlc and Acembumanum ngionlc acld 2 3 bulanadlol Pmprumbactenum Enmmmmr Metabolic pathways of Energy Use I The complete oxidation of glucose to CO2 and H20 is considered an ef cient process I But 45 of the energy from glucose is lost as heat I Cells use the remaining energy in ATP in a variety of ways I Eg active transport of molecules across membrane or flagella motion I Most is used for the production of new cellular components lnteg ration of metabolic pathways I Carbohydrate catabolic pathways are central to the supply of cellular energy I However rather than being dead end pathways several intermediates in these pathways can be diverted into anabolic pathways I This allows the cell to derive maximum benefit from all nutrients and their metabolites I Amphibolic Pathways integration of catabolic and anabolic pathways to improve cell efficiency Amphibolic View of metabolism Glycolysis glyceraldehyde 3phosphate pyruvate TCA cycle acetyICoA oxaloacetic acid i aketogluta c acid w 335
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