Botany Week 2
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Parker Thurston on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BOT 1114 at University of Oklahoma taught by Michael Kistenmacher in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Botany in Biology at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Week 2: Monday: Vegetative organs: anything that is nonreproductive Fruits: reproductive organs (not vegetables) stipules look like really small leaves axillary buds look like buds cauliflower: flower brussel sprouts: bud sunflower seed still encased: fruit Darkness is lack of light, therefore represents nothing However, can say cold temperature instead of lack of heat if you can say exactly what was present and what wasn’t, then you have a good statement: EG: plant grew less in darkness: BAD the plant grew less due to a lack of infrared light: OK make sure that your experiment to test for tomato plant growth is used on tomato plants ensure viability there are many different ways to do similar experiments How to apply acid rain: if you’re using a spray bottle for acid, use it for everything be consistent Dependent variable: changes in response to changes in independent variable independent variable: the factor that the scientist can change constant variable: everything that is not a dependent variable or an independent variable Compound microscope: light comes from bottom and passes through medium Dissecting Scope: light comes from top Use 2 hands to carry microscope do not slide microscope, rotate head to share visions can loosen screw to take off optical lens (head) Samples go on stage slide should be firmly held in place to avoid movement stage can move up and down in order to focus want the part of the slide with sample to be above light can adjust width of eyepieces make sure you can easily see ONLY USE FINE ADJUSTMENT WITH ANY LENSE OTHER THAN SMALLEST Tuesday: Making a slide: place thing to look at onto slide drop water onto slide place cover slide on top organelle: little compartment with a specific function within the cell light is refracted through water within vacuole Iodine used to stain cells to be able to easily see things apply stain to SIDE of cover panel to allow it to flow into the slide typical plant cell: cell wall: very outside of cell, forms shape of cell, typically cellulose or another polymer, considered to be outside cell organelles: 1. nucleus: stores genetic material and determines structure and function, surrounded by DOUBLE membrane 2. endoplasmic recticulum: continuous membrane between ER and nucleus, an extensive network of membranes in cytosol, involved in communication within the cell 1. Rough ER: makes proteins, coated in ribosomes 2. Smooth ER: makes sugars, steroids instead of proteins 3. golgi bodies: Dictyosomes, sacks of flattened membrans, receives message from ER and modifies to be specialized for one specific function, functions in secretion, such as cellulose for cell wall 4. vacuoles: recycling reservoir for some substances and waste storage area for others, allows for regulation of water within the cell, often occupy most space within the cell 5. chloroplast: the site of photosynthesis within the cell, has 2 membranes which are SUPER IMPORTANT to function of chloroplast 6. mitochondria: the powerhouse of the cell, produces ATP (energy), has double membrane (SUPER IMPORTANT), site of cellular respiration cell membrane: goes around entire cell, made of phospholipids, heads hydrophilic, tails hydrophobic, selectively permeable cytoplasm: all material inside the cell membrane but outside the nucleus protoplast: all material inside the cell cytosol: the semifluid matrix that bathes all organelles outside the nucleus Fluid mosaic model: everything in the cell membrane can move around, nothing is static Wednesday: Plants make cholesterol, just different cholesterol than animals nucleus send signal, received by ER, sent on to golgi bodies where it is repackaged inside the golgie Protoplasm=Protoplast simple sugar=monomer complex sugars=chain of simple sugars, called polymer chloroplast contains many many folds of membrane within the primary membrane mitochondrion have similar membranes Plasmodesmota form channels for intercellular communication and resource sharing between cells Cytoplasmic streaming: continuous movement within the cytoplasm Plasmolysis: shrinkage of cytoplasm away from cell wall due to loss of water by osmosis cells divide to reproduce through mitosis in meristems daughter cells identical to parent cell sexual reproduction only meristematic cells reproduce, others become specialized all cells go through cell cycle, specialized cells stop most cells specialize once they are matured Cell Cycle: 1. M Phase a. Prophase: genetic material condenses into chromosomes and become visible, each chromosome is made of 2 identical chromatids, nuclear envelope breaks down b. Metaphase: the spindle fibers connect to the chromosomes which have migrated to the middle of the cell and have aligned so they are now in a line c. Anaphase: chromatids (chromosome arms) have separated and move to opposite sides of the cell d. Telophase: nuclear envelope reforms and cell plate forms to divide the cells, everything begins to transition towards cytokenesis e. cytokenesis: rest of cytoplasm divides 2. G1 Phase: growth and rapid biosynthesis after this many cells cease the cycle after the G1 Phase 3.S phase: Growth and DNA replication 4. G2 Phase: Growth and preparation for mitosis Thursday: Chromosomes contain genes each cell contains 2 copies of each chromosome each set of chromosomes contains a unique set of DNA 4 Main Tissue Systems: Meristematic Tissues: where growth occurs Ground Tissue: makes up most of plant weight; storage system for plant Dermal Tissue: cells lining the outside of the plant, exposed to the environment Vascular Tissue: Transportation of nutrients and water 5 Cell Types: 1. parenchyma Unevenly Shaped thin cell walls look very open Tissues ground dermal meristematic 2. collenchyma smaller than parenchyma thicker cell walls no spaces between cells typically either conditionally* support or protect need water to function* Tissues: ground 3. sclerenchyma provides protection and support die once matured extremely thick cell walls Tissues ground 4. Xylem plumbing system of the plant dead at maturity moves water 2 types of cell: large “pipe” cells, open at tips of cells smaller veiny cells, not open at tips tissue: vascular 5. Phloem stack on top of each other moves everything but water Tissue Vascular meristems: most plant growth is occurring composed of initial cells which complete cell cycle 1. Apical Meristems: 1. responsible for primary growth (length) 2. Axillary Buds 1. form branches leaves or flowers 3. lateral meristem 1. not all plants have this 2. cylindrical meristem 3. responsible for growth in girth (secondary growth) 3 zones in a meristem: 1. zones of cell division (Parenchyma cells) 2. zone of cell elongation 1. where cells grow and mature 3. zone of maturation 1. cells are fully mature Root hairs grow when cells are fully mature
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