New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

CS 2011 Introduction of Computer System Lecture 1 (Week 2 notes)

by: Nemesi Notetaker

CS 2011 Introduction of Computer System Lecture 1 (Week 2 notes) CS2011

Marketplace > University of Cincinnati > Computer Science and Engineering > CS2011 > CS 2011 Introduction of Computer System Lecture 1 Week 2 notes
Nemesi Notetaker
GPA 3.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes Key points of Lecture1, necessary for Midterm. By study from this document, you also will have a solid knowledge of Computer Organization and Design, Fifth Edition: The Hardware/Softwar...
Introduction to Computer Systems
Dr.Eric Hozier
Class Notes
Computer System, CPU, Microprocessors, Moore's Law
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Computer Systems

Popular in Computer Science and Engineering

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nemesi Notetaker on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CS2011 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr.Eric Hozier in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Computer Systems in Computer Science and Engineering at University of Cincinnati.

Popular in Computer Science and Engineering


Reviews for CS 2011 Introduction of Computer System Lecture 1 (Week 2 notes)


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/28/16
University of Cincinnati Department of Computer Science ‘18 Module1 Moore’s Law = famously predicted in 1960 that the transistor capacity of integrated circuits would double every  18­24 months. Not really a law, but has largely held true. Defining and measuring performance As an individual computer user, you are interested in reducing response time—the time between the start and  completion of a task—also referred to as execution time. Throughput the number of tasks completed per unit time (Performance= 1/Execution time) Computers are often shared, however, and a processor may work on several programs simultaneously. In such  cases, the system may try to optimize throughput rather than attempt to minimize the elapsed time for one  program. So in this case we measure Ex. Time  [CPU= electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out  the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, and input/output (I/O) operations  specified by the instructions. Fetch (find), Decode and Execute] CPU execution time Also called CPU time. The actual time the CPU spends computing for a specific task. It is  divided in user CPU time The CPU time spent in a program itself. And system CPU time The CPU time spent  in the operating system performing tasks on behalf of the program Almost all computers are constructed using a clock that determines when events take place in the hardware.  These discrete time intervals are called clock cycles the time for one clock period, usually of the processor  clock, which runs at a constant rate. Clock period The length of each clock cycle. Clock frequency – number of  cycles per second. 1. CPU execution time for a program= CPU clock cycles for a program/Clock rate [GHz] This formula makes it clear that the hardware designer can improve performance by:   reducing the number of clock cycles required for a program   The length of the clock cycle. The performance equations above did not include any reference to the number of instructions needed  for the program. The execution time must depend on the number of instructions in a program. Clock cycles per instruction (CPI) = Average number of clock cycles per instruction for a program or program fragment. 2. CPU clock cycles Instructions for a program X Average clock cycles per instruction We can now write this basic performance equation in terms of instruction count (1+2) CPU time = Instruction count x CPI x Clock cycle time  Or CPU time = (Instruction count x CPI)/Clock rate                                                                                   *IC In a nutshell Performance depends on:  Algorithm: affects IC, possibly CPI (it determines the number of instructions executed and  hence the number of processor instructions executed)  Programming language: affects IC, CPI (statements in the language are translated to  processor instructions, which determine instruction count)  Compiler: affects IC, CPI (the compiler speed determines the translation of the source  language instructions into computer instructions.)  Instruction set architecture: affects IC, CPI, Tc (The instruction set architecture affects all  three aspects of CPU performance, since it affects the instructions needed for a function, the  cost in cycles of each instruction, and the overall clock rate of the processor.)


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.