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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Notetaker on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 100 at Ball State University taught by Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introduction to psychological science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Psychology Notes 1-‐28-‐16 Statistics • Descriptive Statistics o Survey to access student satisfaction with BSU after freshman year o Descriptive statics help us describe the shape of this very distribution o Two types of descriptive measures: 1. Measures of central tendency 2. Measures of variability o Measures of Central Tendency § Mean-‐ average § Median-‐ middle number § Mode-‐ most frequently occurring o Measures of Variability § Measures of dispersion or spread of the scores § Standard Deviation (S)-‐ the average score deviation from the mean (can’t be negative) § Variance (S^2)-‐ standard deviation squared • Used for many inferential statistics Chapter 2 Neuropsychology • Since the days of Van Pavlov in the 1920’s a vast amount of research has focused on understanding the structures and functions of the human brain • Research on the brain is usually conducted in 1 of 8 ways: 1. Study the brains of people who have died of brain tumors and other brain abnormalities a. We associate the types of brain damage with the loss of specific abilities (vision, hearing, etc.) 2. Brains and parts of brans are destroyed and behavioral effects are recorded (animals) a. More common in the 50s-‐60s 3. Electrically or chemically stimulate parts of brain to see effects 4. Use “single cell” recording a. Hook electrodes to single neurons and see when they fire 5. Measure EEG waves (electroencephalogram waves) a. A recording of the electrical activity of the cortex only (used for sleep problems) 6. CT scans (computerized axial tomography) a. Basically are 3D X-‐rays 7. PET scans (positron emission tomography) a. Detects brain activity through heat sensing 8. MRI scans (magnetic resonance imaging) a. Detects brain structures by sending radio waves through a strong magnetic field • The basic unit for the nervous system is the neuron. o Found throughout the body o Come in all shapes, sizes, and lengths o Cell body, dendrites, myelin sheath, axon o Neurons cluster together to form a chain from neuron to neuron with the dendrites of one touching or nearly touching the axon terminals of the next neuron (via synapse) • The space between each neuron is called the synapse • The chains of neurons carry information through electrical charges with the neurons • When a neuron charges electrically, it is said to fire • When a neuron fires, it sends information to the next neuron in an all-‐or-‐ none fashion o Called Action Potential (neurons work more like guns than water hoses) • When a neuron fires, it shoots neurotransmitters across the synapse to the next neuron • Neurotransmitters-‐ chemicals produced by the brain that carry the information from one neuron to the next • Drugs like heroine and meth work by upsetting the delicate balance of neurotransmitters in the brain • Major Neurotransmitters o Acetylcholine-‐ Alzheimer’s o Dopamine-‐ Parkinson’s o Serotonin-‐ anxiety, mood problems, insomnia, obesity o Endorphins-‐ bodily pain o Norepinephrine (adrenaline)-‐ depression o GABA (gamma amino butyric acid)-‐ anxiety, insomnia o Hypocretin-‐ Narcolepsy, obesity • The Human Nervous System o The human nervous system has two parts: 1. Central Nervous System (CNS) a. Brain b. Spinal cord 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) o The brain and spinal cord send and receive signals from the body of two different types: 1. Sensory signals a. Receptor site > spinal cord > brain i. Sent by sensory neurons ii. wrist sends signals to brain when it’s in pain 2. Motor Signals a. Brain > spinal cord > receptor site i. Sent by motor neurons ii. Brain telling hand to open • The Human Brain o The brain consists of both a right and left hemisphere o The hemispheres are connected by a thick bundle of neurons called the corpus callosum o Both hemispheres are covered by a wrinkly exterior called the cortex § Cortex is responsible for our (human) higher-‐level thinking and intelligence o Because humans have more wrinkles in their cortexes than all lower level animals, we have more raw cortex than other species o The cortex is covered by the skull (1/4 inch thick bone) o Important parts of the brain and their functions: § Hindbrain: 1. Medulla-‐ heart rate and breathing 2. Reticular formation-‐ arousal, waking, excretion 3. Pons-‐ sleeping and dreaming 4. Cerebellum-‐ coordination and balance § Forebrain: 1. Diencephalon a. Thalamus-‐ relay center b. Hypothalamus-‐ motivation, emotion, eating, and pleasure 2. Telencephalon a. Basal Ganglia-‐ movement/posture b. Corpus Callosum-‐ hemisphere relay c. Cortex-‐ complex thinking, coordination of senses o One of the best understood groups of structures in the brain is the limbic system § Limbic System plays a major role in: 1. Epilepsy 2. Amnesia 3. Drug Addiction 4. Obesity 5. Eating Disorders 6. Emotional Behavior 7. Sexual Pleasure o Olds and Milner (1960’s) found that electrical stimulation of the limbic system (i.e hypothalamus) in rats produced extremely pleasurable states o In fact they called the hypothalamus the “pleasure center’ of the brain o Since Olds and Milner’s early work, we now know that… § The amygdala controls our emotions § The hippocampus aids in the storage of new memories throughout the brain • Memories are not “localized” (i.e. not stored in one part of the brain) o Left and Right Brain Differences § Evidence for left/right brain differences comes primarily from studying the behavior of people who have experienced trauma/disease to either the left or right side of their brains § Left hemispheric damage is associated with: 1. Aphasia-‐ disorder in the production of spoken or written language 2. Apraxia-‐ inability to carry out skilled movement in the absence of spinal cord damage 3. Agnosia-‐ inability to recognize familiar objects by sight, touch, or sound 4. Left/right body confusion a. hit gas instead of break in car, wedding ring on wrong hand 5. Verbal memory deficits 6. Mood disorders a. Depression 7. Right0side weakness or paralysis 8. Dyslexia-‐ impairment of reading ability
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