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Psyc 100

by: Kate Notetaker

Psyc 100 PSYCH 100

Kate Notetaker
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

Neuropsychology and the Human Brain
Introduction to psychological science
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Notetaker on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 100 at Ball State University taught by Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introduction to psychological science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
Psychology  Notes  1-­‐28-­‐16     Statistics   • Descriptive  Statistics     o Survey  to  access  student  satisfaction  with  BSU  after  freshman   year     o Descriptive  statics  help  us  describe  the  shape  of  this  very   distribution   o Two  types  of  descriptive  measures:     1. Measures  of  central  tendency     2. Measures  of  variability     o Measures  of  Central  Tendency   § Mean-­‐  average   § Median-­‐  middle  number   § Mode-­‐  most  frequently  occurring     o Measures  of  Variability     § Measures  of  dispersion  or  spread  of  the  scores     § Standard  Deviation  (S)-­‐  the  average  score  deviation   from  the  mean  (can’t  be  negative)   § Variance  (S^2)-­‐  standard  deviation  squared     • Used  for  many  inferential  statistics           Chapter  2   Neuropsychology     • Since  the  days  of  Van  Pavlov  in  the  1920’s  a  vast  amount  of  research  has   focused  on  understanding  the  structures  and  functions  of  the  human  brain     • Research  on  the  brain  is  usually  conducted  in  1  of  8  ways:     1. Study  the  brains  of  people  who  have  died  of  brain  tumors   and  other  brain  abnormalities   a. We  associate  the  types  of  brain  damage  with  the  loss   of  specific  abilities  (vision,  hearing,  etc.)   2. Brains  and  parts  of  brans  are  destroyed  and  behavioral   effects  are  recorded  (animals)     a. More  common  in  the  50s-­‐60s   3. Electrically  or  chemically  stimulate  parts  of  brain  to  see   effects     4. Use  “single  cell”  recording   a. Hook  electrodes  to  single  neurons  and  see  when   they  fire     5. Measure  EEG  waves  (electroencephalogram  waves)   a. A  recording  of  the  electrical  activity  of  the  cortex   only  (used  for  sleep  problems)   6. CT  scans  (computerized  axial  tomography)   a. Basically  are  3D  X-­‐rays     7. PET  scans  (positron  emission  tomography)     a. Detects  brain  activity  through  heat  sensing     8. MRI  scans  (magnetic  resonance  imaging)   a. Detects  brain  structures  by  sending  radio  waves   through  a  strong  magnetic  field       • The  basic  unit  for  the  nervous  system  is  the  neuron.     o Found  throughout  the  body     o Come  in  all  shapes,  sizes,  and  lengths     o Cell  body,  dendrites,  myelin  sheath,  axon   o Neurons  cluster  together  to  form  a  chain  from  neuron  to  neuron  with   the  dendrites  of  one  touching  or  nearly  touching  the  axon  terminals  of   the  next  neuron  (via  synapse)     • The  space  between  each  neuron  is  called  the  synapse     • The  chains  of  neurons  carry  information  through  electrical  charges  with  the   neurons     • When  a  neuron  charges  electrically,  it  is  said  to  fire     • When  a  neuron  fires,  it  sends  information  to  the  next  neuron  in  an  all-­‐or-­‐ none  fashion     o Called  Action  Potential  (neurons  work  more  like  guns  than  water   hoses)   • When  a  neuron  fires,  it  shoots  neurotransmitters  across  the  synapse  to  the   next  neuron   • Neurotransmitters-­‐  chemicals  produced  by  the  brain  that  carry  the   information  from  one  neuron  to  the  next     • Drugs  like  heroine  and  meth  work  by  upsetting  the  delicate  balance  of   neurotransmitters  in  the  brain     • Major  Neurotransmitters     o Acetylcholine-­‐  Alzheimer’s   o Dopamine-­‐  Parkinson’s   o Serotonin-­‐  anxiety,  mood  problems,  insomnia,  obesity   o Endorphins-­‐  bodily  pain   o Norepinephrine  (adrenaline)-­‐  depression     o GABA  (gamma  amino  butyric  acid)-­‐  anxiety,  insomnia   o Hypocretin-­‐  Narcolepsy,  obesity       • The  Human  Nervous  System     o The  human  nervous  system  has  two  parts:   1. Central  Nervous  System  (CNS)   a. Brain     b. Spinal  cord   2. Peripheral  Nervous  System  (PNS)   o The  brain  and  spinal  cord  send  and  receive  signals  from  the  body  of   two  different  types:   1. Sensory  signals     a. Receptor  site  >  spinal  cord  >  brain     i. Sent  by  sensory  neurons   ii. wrist  sends  signals  to  brain  when  it’s  in  pain   2. Motor  Signals     a. Brain  >  spinal  cord  >  receptor  site     i. Sent  by  motor  neurons     ii. Brain  telling  hand  to  open       • The  Human  Brain     o The  brain  consists  of  both  a  right  and  left  hemisphere     o The  hemispheres  are  connected  by  a  thick  bundle  of  neurons  called   the  corpus  callosum   o Both  hemispheres  are  covered  by  a  wrinkly  exterior  called  the  cortex     § Cortex  is  responsible  for  our  (human)  higher-­‐level  thinking   and  intelligence     o Because  humans  have  more  wrinkles  in  their  cortexes  than  all  lower   level  animals,  we  have  more  raw  cortex  than  other  species     o The  cortex  is  covered  by  the  skull  (1/4  inch  thick  bone)     o Important  parts  of  the  brain  and  their  functions:   § Hindbrain:   1. Medulla-­‐  heart  rate  and  breathing     2. Reticular  formation-­‐  arousal,  waking,  excretion     3. Pons-­‐  sleeping  and  dreaming   4. Cerebellum-­‐  coordination  and  balance     § Forebrain:     1. Diencephalon     a. Thalamus-­‐  relay  center   b. Hypothalamus-­‐  motivation,  emotion,  eating,  and   pleasure     2. Telencephalon     a. Basal  Ganglia-­‐  movement/posture   b. Corpus  Callosum-­‐  hemisphere  relay     c. Cortex-­‐  complex  thinking,  coordination  of  senses     o One  of  the  best  understood  groups  of  structures  in  the  brain  is  the   limbic  system     § Limbic  System  plays  a  major  role  in:     1. Epilepsy     2. Amnesia   3. Drug  Addiction   4. Obesity   5. Eating  Disorders   6. Emotional  Behavior     7. Sexual  Pleasure     o Olds  and  Milner  (1960’s)  found  that  electrical  stimulation  of  the   limbic  system  (i.e  hypothalamus)  in  rats  produced  extremely   pleasurable  states     o In  fact  they  called  the  hypothalamus  the  “pleasure  center’  of  the  brain     o Since  Olds  and  Milner’s  early  work,  we  now  know  that…   § The  amygdala  controls  our  emotions   § The  hippocampus  aids  in  the  storage  of  new  memories   throughout  the  brain     • Memories  are  not  “localized”  (i.e.  not  stored  in  one  part   of  the  brain)     o Left  and  Right  Brain  Differences   § Evidence  for  left/right  brain  differences  comes  primarily  from   studying  the  behavior  of  people  who  have  experienced   trauma/disease  to  either  the  left  or  right  side  of  their  brains     § Left  hemispheric  damage  is  associated  with:     1. Aphasia-­‐  disorder  in  the  production  of  spoken  or   written  language     2. Apraxia-­‐  inability  to  carry  out  skilled  movement  in  the   absence  of  spinal  cord  damage     3. Agnosia-­‐  inability  to  recognize  familiar  objects  by  sight,   touch,  or  sound     4. Left/right  body  confusion     a. hit  gas  instead  of  break  in  car,  wedding  ring  on   wrong  hand   5. Verbal  memory  deficits     6. Mood  disorders     a. Depression     7. Right0side  weakness  or  paralysis     8. Dyslexia-­‐  impairment  of  reading  ability          


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