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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Halie Seyboth on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 309 at Towson University taught by Dr. Masters in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
BIO201. FINAL EXAM NOTES Exam 1: o Go over quiz questions on black board o Complementary strand of DNA o Transcribe template strand into messenger RNA o Polypeptide chain from messenger RNA o RNA has U, DNA has T o Number 2 is important ***** In a single water molecule, the oxygen and hydrogen atoms share electrons unequally. Polar covalent bond between Hydrogen and Oxygen Electronegativity Leads waters ability to form hydrogen bonds with other water molecules. o Nonpolar covalent bonds share electrons equally o –ASE = enzyme o Plants store energy as starch, animals store energy as glycogen o Compare and contrast DNA and RNA 3 parts of nucleotide Directionality Similarities o Endergonic vs. exergonic o Properties of water (chapter 2) o 4 levels of protein structure o Atomic number, atomic mass (protons, neutrons, electrons) o Motifs – same repeated structures found in different proteins o pH what is acidic/basic? Fold differences o Question 12 is bad. o 13. Pick out control group for an experiment o Allosteric o Feedback inhibition in the biochemical pathway o Figure out how many atomic bonds an atom can make o Oxidation vs. reduction (OILRIG). Electrons are moving. Reduced has greater energy o Importance of ATP to all metabolism o Negative charge is on phosphate groups o ATP is used as energy currency of cell o Carboxyl group causes it to be hydrophilic. Polar/nonpolar. Hydrophobic or hydrophilic. Number 19/20 o Number 21 is a good question o Function of enzymes: lower activation energy o 24. Protein structure o Dehydration, synthesis, hydrolysis reactions o Water molecules are attracted to one another because of the formation of hydrogen bonds o Questions 27-30 structures. Tell the difference between A and B (ribose vs. deoxyribose on 2 prime carbon). Recognize C, D, and E. E – recognize an amino acid. 2 o Ion concentrations with 2 pH values o What are the three main molecular components (not atoms) of a nucleotide. o Central dogma of molecular biology and exceptions (reverse transcriptase) o 3 parts of a nucleotide: 5 carbon sugar, nitrogenous base, phosphate o Number 34 is important. Electron carbon atom amino acid protein polypeptide organelle cell tissue Exam 2: o Chapter 4 o All cells have cell walls o Cytoskeleton o Cell junctions o Parts of cells o Endosymbiosis o Cell connections o Cell theory o Chapter 10 o Double stranded DNA. Calculate percentage of 3 nucleotides when given percentage of one nucleotide o Plants, fungi, bacteria commonalities o Osmosis o 11 – telomeres o Replication 3 o Facilitated diffusion (energy vs. with concentration gradient) o Mitosis o Count sister chromatids depending on what phase the cell is in o Daughter cells are identical to parent cells in mitosis, but not meiosis. o Role of cohesion – hold sister chromatids together o Not scientists’ names or experiments on final o DNA replication Exam 3: o Biotechnology o Lac operon/trp operon o Gene expression o Meiosis vs. mitosis o Cells become haploid at the end of meiosis 1 o Before mitosis or meiosis, S phase happens o Synapsis o Meiosis 1 is a reductional division o Meiosis 2 is very similar to regular mitotic cell division o Tell difference between metaphase of meiosis 1, meiosis 2, and mitosis. Given picture be able to tell which one it is and how you know its that. Photosynthesis – take inorganic carbon and build up energy o Plants take energy from the sun o Store energy to use later 4 o Photosystems (1 and 2) o Non-cyclic photosynthesis, photosystem 2 followed by photosystem 1 o Oxygen is released when you split water to get an electron o Point: make ATP and NADPH, which goes to Calvin cycle Cellular respiration o Point: harvesting energy from molecules like glucose o Glycolysis happens in the cytoplasm. 2 ATP, 2NADH, 2 molecules of Pyruvates o Aerobic respiration (oxygen present) vs. anaerobic respiration o Acetyl CoA o Citric acid cycle Krebs cycle o NADH and FAD2 o Electron transport chain is located in inner mitochondrial membrane o Energy is released, protons pumped against gradient o Inner membrane space is more acidic in mitochondria o Oxygen is the final electron acceptor o Lots of ATP formed and water o Carbons go to CO 2 o Write down input and output of cellular respiration in 3 phases o Bacteria do anaerobic respiration 5 o Our cells do lactic acid fermentation o Fermentation happens when there isn’t oxygen present o More energy by aerobic respiration (a lot more) than fermentation o Products of respiration are starting points for photosynthesis Understand quizzes look at those questions Diagram of cell is likely (probably plant cell instead of animal cell like on exam 2) No photorespiration on exam Genetics questions Blood type Punnett square Gametes from parent Gametes are haploid Sex-linked traits 6
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