Developmental Psychology Week 2 of notes
Developmental Psychology Week 2 of notes PSYC 3120
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Chapter 3- Birth and the Newborn Infant 1/26/16 Terminology • Neonate: newborn • Braxton Hicks Contractions: false labor o Exercising the musculature of the uterus o Almost like a “practice” of labor Three Stages of Labor (picture on next page to explain more) • Stage 1: on average, 16 to 24 hours o Typically, after the first birth, the cervix is still a little stretched and so this period can be shorter for subsequent children o Cervix § The cervix has to widen throughout this time period to allow the baby’s head to fit through the woman’s uterus § Usually has to be about 10cm o Transition: the frequency and strength of the contractions are at their peak § To start, they’re every 10 minutes or so and only last about 2 minutes § At transition, it’s pretty much constant contractions § Contractions: menstrual cramps x1000 § Here, the mother feels like it’s time to push • Stage 2: on average, 90 minutes (typically 20 minutes for second, third, etc. baby) o “Dramatic” part of labor- where the mother is really baring down and screaming in pain o The head is the widest part of the baby- the hardest part to push out o End of stage 2- shoulders appear (one shoulder out at a time) o Episiotomy: incision a physician can make (between the vagina and the anus) that will allow the baby’s head to come through § Used for mothers whose area down there is too small for the baby’s head § Doctor can sew the area up later • Stage 3: on average, 5 to 10 minutes o Easiest stage o After the neonate is out, the mother must push a couple more times so that the umbilical cord and placenta are delivered § You can save the umbilical cord (it’s rich in stem cells) § If your baby develops leukemia or something else that could be cured or helped through stem cells, they can take the stem cells from the baby’s umbilical cord § You can also donate it o Umbilical cord must be clamped, otherwise the mother could bleed to death APGAR scale • Appearance = color o Don’t want the baby to be blue • Pulse = heart rate o Heart rate greater than 100 • Grimace = reflex irritability • Activity = muscle tone • Respiration = respiratory effort At first: the neonate • Babies have a lot on them when first born: o Amniotic fluid o Blood o Vernix: thick, greasy substance that helps ease the baby through the birth canal § Covers and protects the baby § Causes the baby’s fingers to be a little “pruny” o Lanugo: very fine hairs that cover the body § Develops in utero § 20 weeks gestation- covers entire body § 28 weeks gestation- begins to thin § At 40 weeks gestation- may be completely gone • Head shape: cone-shaped (caused by the force of going through the birth canal) o Can take several weeks to a month (maybe even 2 months) for this to die down Pain and Childbirth • Analgesic: can dim the pain, but not as much as an epidural would • Anesthetic o Epidural (some risk- both to mother and infant) § Can be temporary paralysis § Can interfere with the woman’s ability to push § Newborn can be a little sleepy when born o Some kind of medication is used in 80% of US births o US has the highest rate of scheduled C-sections Birth Options • Family Birthing Center • Nurse/midwife • Lamaze o Classes o Relaxation and breathing techniques o Labor coach: typically the husband o Self-selection bias • Cesarean (C-section) o Surgical birth § If fetus is in distress § If it’s clear the baby’s head is too big for the mother’s birth canal § Twins § If the fetus is breech o May be done too often o C-section is safe but has disadvantages Complications of Birth Process • Breech Position: when the baby is butt first o Can cause the umbilical cord to be wrapped around the baby’s neck • Transverse Position: when the fetus is horizontal • Cerebral Palsy: impairments in muscle coordination that results from brain damage that happened before, during or just after birth • Anoxia: lack of oxygen • Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH): there’s a bleed in the brain à can lead to brain damage o Common in pre-term infants Chapter 4- Infant Physical Development 1/28/16 Development of the Nervous System • Neuron: a nerve cell that stores and transmits information o Die over time if they’re not used/stimulated o Infants are born with a large number of these • Myelin: covers the neurons and improves the efficiency of message transfer o Believed this is related to us forming memories o A.k.a. fatty sheath • Cortex: part of the brain where all this takes place o Ridges become more pronounced as the individual ages • By the age of 2, the brain is 70% of its adult weight (head doesn’t become proportional to the body, size wise, until about age 12) • Plasticity: the degree to which a developing structure is modifiable due to experience o Neuroplasticity: describes how experiences reorganize neural pathways o The brain has great plasticity o Interaction between nature and nurture o The brain is able to accommodate your whole life, but is best in infancy o Neuroplasticity allows for: § Learning § Memory § Recovery from trauma (if a baby were to fall off a bed onto a wood floor, or if they were in a car wreck) § Crucial in early brain development o Infant Neuroplasticity § Greatest during first years of life § Infant’s sensory experiences affect both the size of individual neurons and the structure of their interconnections • Infants raised in severely restricted environments likely to show differences in brain size and weight • Importance of “stimulating” environments § Parents create stimulating environments that will encourage healthy brain growth by: • Cuddling- infant massage • Talking and singing to the infant • Playing with the infant • BONUS: holding and reading to babies engages multiple senses (vision, hearing, touch) § Due to high levels of plasticity, infants who suffer brain injuries typically are less affected and recover more fully than adults • Hemispherectomy- neurosurgeons have performed the operation on children as young as three months old o Memory and personality develop normally o Academic achievement usually improves after seizures stop o Difficulty with contralateral fine motor movements o fMRI shows the remaining hemisphere takes over functions o Because many areas of the brain are not yet devoted to specific tasks, if one area is injured, other areas can take over • Synaptic Pruning: the elimination of neurons as the result of nonuse or lack of stimulation o “Use it or lost it” o Babies are born with more neurons than they need o Brain development enhances certain capabilities in part by “pruning down” unnecessary neurons § Allows established neurons to build more elaborate communication networks with other neurons § Strengthens connections Sensitive Periods in Brain Development • Strabismus: individual has difficulty seeing clearly because one eye can’t focus (a.k.a. “lazy eye”) o Implications for depth perception (e.g., to see if there’s a step, you need both eyes) o Can be surgically repaired at an early age o Affects visual acuity (details) • Electroencephalogram (EEG): these ages are when there are “bursts” of activity- like a brain “growth spurt” o 1 ½ - 2 years: language primarily o 9 – 15 years: abstract thought (e.g., algebra and geometry) o 18 – 20 years: consolidation of large bodies of knowledge States of Arousal (table 4-2 in text) • Rhythms/Cyclical • State o Sleep States § Active Sleep (similar to REM sleep): infant spends about 50% of their sleep time in this active sleep § Quiet Sleep (non-REM sleep): no extra brain wave activity happening, very immobile during this time (about 28% of sleep time) § Active-quiet transition sleep: waking up or falling asleep o At first, they’ll sleep 16-18 hours a day • Transition States Between Sleeping and Waking o Drowsiness: when the infant is kind of falling asleep, the body is less active (4%) o Daze: when eyes are open, but they’re not really focusing on anything (“the lights are on, but nobody is home”) o Sleep wake transition: when they’re waking up • Awake States o Awake: alert, looking at the environment, crying (2-3 hours) § On average, babies cry 1-4 hours a day § Hunger is the most common reason that babies cry o Non alert waking o Fuss Reflexes (table 4-3 in text) • Most reflexes drop out after 6 months • Reflex: inborn automatic responses when infants are stimulated by the environment • Rooting: if something touches the side of the baby’s face, they will turn their head and try to suck on whatever was touching their face o Adaptive function: nursing • Stepping reflex: looks like walking, but it’s something the infants have when they’re young o You hold the baby on a flat surface, and they raise their feet as though they’re going to walk, even though they’re months away from actually walking • Palmar grasp: if you put your finger in the infant’s hand and press down on their palm, they will grasp onto your finger o Disappears: 3-4 months • Tonic neck: if the infant is lying awake on their back and you turn their head, they will put their arm out o Disappears: 4 months Milestones of Motor Development (Figure 4-8 and Table 4-4 in text) • Gross Motor Skills o Sit alone = 7 months o Crawling/creeping = 8 and 10 months o Walk alone = 11-14 months • Norms o Average performance of a large sample of children of a given age o Only useful if the data on which they’re based come from a representative sample o Affected by: training, cultural expectations, nutrition, etc. Senses • Touch: very sensitive o Reflexes o Temperature o Putting things in their mouth o Pain • Taste: very well developed o Facial expressions • Smell o Facial expressions o Can recognize mother’s scent (even at just a few days of age) o Prefer the scent of a lactating woman than a non-lactating woman • Hearing o Sound localization o Sound distinction: can tell distinction between sounds, like between “ba”, “ga”, and “pa” o Especially like sounds that sound like a human voice
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