Anatomy 3601: Lecture 4
Anatomy 3601: Lecture 4 FSCN 1112
U of M
Popular in Principles of Nutrition
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by alliemartinnn Notetaker on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FSCN 1112 at University of Minnesota taught by Mashek, Douglas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Principles of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Glands and Bones Glands of the Integument ● Glands= produced from the epidermis ● Endocrine= cells make hormones and release them into the blood system ● Exocrine= secretes substance into a duct that opens onto the epithelium ○ Secretion methods: ■ Merocrine= excretion granule is released by exocytosis → Eccrine Sweat Gland ■ Holocrine= entire cell bursts and contents are expelled → Sebaceous Gland ■ Apocrine= part of the cell breaks off and contents are released → Apocrine Sweat Gland ■ Cytogenous= part of the cell is transferred to another cell → Melanocytes ○ Includes: mucus, saliva, enzymes, waste products, milk ○ Stroma= framework of the gland ○ Parenchyma=functional cells of the gland ● Glands can be unicellular or multicellular ○ Acinar Cell= multicellular; produces ; looks like a cluster of grapes ■ Serous= produces watery serous fluid (sweat, milk, tears) ■ Mucous= produces mucous ■ Mixed= can create serous and mucous ○ Goblet Cell= unicellular; produces mucus; looks like a water goblet ● Sebaceous Glands ○ Typical= secretes into hair follicles ○ Sebaceous Follicles= secretes onto skin surface ● Sweat Glands ○ Apocrine= sweat + part of the cell; releases sweat onto the hair follicle; provides nutrition for bacteria ■ Ceruminous= wax ■ Mammary= milk ○ Merocrine= in reticular part of dermis; carries sweat to surface of epidermis; ● Oil Glands ○ Holocrine= Cell explodes to release oil and keep skin from drying; excretes onto hair follicles or directly onto skin ● Mammary Glands ○ Apocrine= milk is produced into glands and travels through ducts ● Ceruminous Glands ○ Apocrine= glands in ear canal produce wax to prevent against infection Embryonic Development ● The three layers of the embryo ○ Ectoderm ■ “outside”; forms skin, CNS ○ Endoderm ■ “inside”; digestive system, lungs ○ Mesoderm ■ “middle”; forms everything else Cartilage and Bone ● Cartilage and Bone are each types of connective tissue ● Cartilage ○ Functions ■ Support soft tissue ■ Gliding surface ■ Basis for some joints ■ Model for bone formation ● Bony precursor that later ossifies into bone ○ Cartilage Cells ■ Chondrocyte= maintains cartilage ■ Chondroblast= makes cartilage ○ Characteristics ■ Live in lacuna (cell nests) ■ Cartilage matrix includes collagen and ground substance ■ Cartilage is avascular ■ Cartilage Growth: ● Interstitial growth= growth in length; chondrocytes via mitosis, two daughter cells in one lacuna ● Apposition= growth in diameter; chondroblasts by creating more cartilage matrix ○ Types of Cartilage ■ Hyaline ● Most common; absence of collagen; bone precursor ● Articular Cartilage= at bone ends; absence of perichondrium ■ Elastic Cartilage ● least common; highly flexible; branched elastic fibers in an irregular pattern ■ Fibrocartilage ● Columns of chondrocytes separated by dense regular collagen fibers ● Strengthens attachments of tendon and ligaments ● Prevents stretching and compression ● Shock absorber ● Lacks perichondrium ● Bone ○ Functions ■ Support and protection ■ Movement ■ Hemopoeisis ■ Storage of mineral and energy reserves ● Homeostasis ○ Composition ■ Organic ● Collagen (protein; somewhat flexible; about 90% of bone’s organic component) ■ Inorganic ● Hydroxyapatite, citrate, fluoride, strontium ● Rigid ○ Characteristics ■ Bones are flexible and dynamic ■ Vascularized ● Growth, development, remodeling, regeneration ○ Bone Cells ■ Osteoblasts ● Produce bone; in periosteum and endosteum; produce osteoid (protein matrix) ■ Osteocytes ● Surrounded by bone; maintain bone cells; housed in lacunae ● Canaliculi= tiny canals for communication between cells ■ Osteoclasts ● Destroys bone; large and multinucleated; helps with remodeling of bone during reconstruction and heling
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