PSYC 101 Chapter 1 Notes
PSYC 101 Chapter 1 Notes PSYC 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angela Potter on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Towson University taught by Barbara Wilson in Spring 2013. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see Intro Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
PSYC 101 Chapter 1: What is Psychology?▯ Psychology: Scientiﬁc study of behavior and mental processes▯ 3 Key components:▯ -Science: Scientiﬁc methods to observe behavior▯ -Behavior: what can be directly observed▯ -Mental Processes: thoughts, feelings, motives that we experience privately, cannot be ob- served ▯ Testing assumptions▯ Skepticism▯ - skeptical people challenge whether a fact is true ▯ - They question what everyone knows (Ex. women are inferior to men) ▯ Objectivity▯ -Be open to the evidence▯ -Use the empirical method to learn - the empirical method is gaining information through obser- vations, collecting data, logical reasoning▯ Curiosity▯ ▯ History of Psychology has it roots in▯ how was the discipline of psychology come to be▯ Western Philosophy▯ -Ancient greece 4th and 5th century▯ -Socrates, plato, aristotle debated the nature of thought and behavior and the link between mind and body. is there a link between the mind and the body?▯ -Psychology grew out of this tradition of thinking about the body and mind▯ ▯ Biology and Psychology▯ Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)▯ -German philosopher and also a physician ▯ ▯ -in 1879 he established the ﬁrst psychology lab initially because he wanted to study the ▯ ▯ workings of the brain and how mental processes could be measured.▯ ▯ -He was intent on identifying the structures of the mind- structures of mental processes▯ ▯ -His method of study was introspection: looking inside▯ ▯ -He used a systematic approach and part of the way he collected data was to get self reports from the participants in a controlled laboratory▯ ▯ ▯ William James(Functionalism) (1842-1910)▯ -philosopher▯ ▯ -He was interested in what was the purpose of the mind, what was the function?]▯ ▯ - Identiﬁed the functions and purposes of the mind and the human process ▯ ▯ - what was the purpose of thoughts▯ ▯ -Why is human thought adaptable▯ ▯ - Stream of consciousness: The mind is ﬂexible and ﬂuid▯ ▯ Contemporary approaches:▯ Current Physiological ▯ ▯ Perspectives/approaches:▯ • Biological▯ • Behavioral ▯ • Psychodynamic▯ • humanistic ▯ • cognitive▯ • Evolutionary▯ • Sociocultural▯ ▯ Biological Approach: focuses on the brain and the central nervous system.Looks at genetics ▯ ▯ -Neuroscience▯ -The scientiﬁc study of the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry of the ner- vous system, emphasizing that the brain and NS are key to understanding behavior, thoughts and emotions▯ - Allowed psychologist to better understand the brain as amazing complex organ▯ Behavioral Approach: emphasizes the scientiﬁc study of behavior responses and the environ- ment ▯ -Focuses on the environmental determinants of observable behavior▯ Behaviorist Approach▯ Notable behaviorist who dominated psychological research from the ﬁrst half of the 20th century▯ • John Watson (1878 -1958)▯ • B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)▯ • Rejected thought processes and focused on behavior - what people DO▯ ▯ Psychodynamic Approach- Freud (Founding father of this approach)▯ Psychodynamics emphasizes:▯ • unconscious thought▯ • The conﬂict between biological drives and the demands of society▯ • early childhood family experience ▯ • Believe that sexual and aggressive impulses buried deep within the unconscious mind inﬂu- ence the way we think, feel and behave▯ ▯ Humanistic Approach ▯ Humanist emphasizes a persons:▯ • Positive human qualities ▯ • Their capacity for positive growth▯ Humanist says we have free will, we can choose how we want to live our lives▯ Free will: the freedom to chose ones destiny, We are not victims of our environment and can control our lives: We choose how we will respond▯ Humanist theorist▯ • Carl Rogers- 1961▯ • Abraham Maslow -1971▯ Cognitive Approach▯ The cognitive approach emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing▯ (Memory, decision making, problem solving, creativity, how we direct our attention, perceive, think.. etc)▯ Information processing▯ ….How humanist interpret incoming info, weigh it, store it, and apply it▯ Sociocultural Approach▯ • Examines the way social and cultural environments inﬂuence behavior and mental processes▯ • Argues that understanding ones behavior requires knowing the cultural context in which be- havior occurs▯ ▯ Careers in Psychology▯ Practice / Applied (clinical practice 24% Private practice 22%)▯ Research▯ Teaching- Academic environments (34 %)▯ ▯ Areas of Specialization▯ • Physiological Psych / Behavioral Neuroscience▯ • Sensation and perception (physical systems with psychological processes allows us to expe- rience the world)▯ • Learning (Operant and classical conditioning) ▯ • Cognitive Psychology (Attention, consciousness, information processing, memory)▯ • Developmental psychology (how we develop across a life span)▯ • Motivation & Emotion (What motivates us)▯ • Psychology of Women and Gender▯ • Personality Psychology ( why are you the way you are)▯ Social Psychology▯ • • Industrial / Organizational Psychology ( in the ﬁelds of corporate America how do we motivate our employees)▯ • Clinical & counseling Psychology (psychotherapist who works with you)▯ • Health Psychology (body, mind and spirit connection)▯ • Community psychology- Mental health clinics▯ • School and Educational psychology ▯ • Environmental Psychology▯ Forensic Psychology- applies psychological concepts to the legal system (Jury selection)▯ • • Sports Psychology ( Increases sports performance)▯ • Cross-Cultural Psychology (How culture affects behavior, thought and emotion)▯
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