PSYC 101 Chapter 2: Psychology's Scientific Method Notes
PSYC 101 Chapter 2: Psychology's Scientific Method Notes PSYC 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angela Potter on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Towson University taught by Barbara Wilson in Spring 2013. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Intro Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
PSYC 101 Chapter 2: Psychology’s Scientiﬁc Method▯ ▯ Scientiﬁc Method▯ Science is a method▯ Its not what you study, but how you study it▯ 1. Observe some phenomenon that you are curios or skeptical about ▯ ▯ d n▯ ▯ a 2. Conceptualize the problem - that is express it in terms of operational deﬁnitions and hypotheses▯ Hypotheses is a educated guess▯ Theory is an hypotheses that is proven▯ 3. Collect Data- select a research method that will be appropriate to explore the issue or test the hypotheses ▯ Population is the entire group about which the investigator wishes to draw conclusion▯ Select an appropriate SAMPLE that is representative of the population of interest. It is the subset of the population chosen by the investigator ▯ Random sample: a sample that gives every member of the population and equal chance of being selected▯ Test through empirical research: Gaining knowledge through the observation of events. the collection of data and logical reasoning.▯ Descriptive research: Observing and recording behavior. The following are all examples of descriptive research:▯ • Observation ▯ • Laboratory▯ • Naturalistic ▯ Surveys and Interviews▯ • • Standardized Tests▯ • Case study ▯ 4. Analyze the data▯ • Based on the data collected and how it was collected the data is analyzed.▯ • Most research in psychology is analyzed using statistical procedures▯ 5. Draw Conclusions ▯ • Based on the analysis results, the researcher develops explanations for the ﬁndings.▯ • Do the ﬁndings conﬁrm the hypotheses▯ If not, change the hypotheses etc▯ • ▯ The scientiﬁc method uses:▯ • Objective▯ • Systematic and▯ • Testable research information known as DATA▯ Correlational Research ▯ • Positive Correlations▯ factors vary in same direction▯ • • ↑ and ↑ … or … ↓ and ↓▯ • Negative Correlations▯ • factors vary in opposite direction▯ ↑ and ↓ … or … ↑ and ↓▯ • Experimental Research▯ • Experimental Group▯ • Independent variable is manipulated▯ • Control Group▯ • Treated equally, except no manipulation of independent variable▯ Validity▯ • External Validity▯ • Representative of real world issues?▯ • Do results generalize the real world?▯ • Internal Validity▯ Are dependent variables changes the result of independent variable manipulation?▯ • • Bias? Logical Erros?▯ Applying Different Research Methods to Same Phenomenon▯ Example:▯ Possible Research Methods▯ • Observation▯ • Survey and Interview▯ • Case Studies▯ • Co Relational Research▯ • Experimental Research ▯ Research Sample▯ Population▯ • • Entire group about whom conclusion drawn▯ • Sample▯ • Portion of population actually observed▯ • Representative Sample▯ • Characteristics similar to population ▯ • Opposite of “biased” sample▯ • Random Sample▯ • Equal choice of being selected ▯ Research Settings▯ “Artificial” world- laboratory setting▯ • Controlled setting- the researcher controls the situation▯ Real World- natural setting▯ • Naturalistic observation- occurs in a real world setting▯ Analyzing and Interpreting Data▯ Statistics▯ Mathematical methods used to report data▯ • Descriptive Statistics ▯ • Describe and summarize data▯ Inferential Statistics▯ • Draw conclusions about data▯ Descriptive Statistics▯ Measures of Central Tendency▯ • Mean- the average from the sample▯ • Median- the middle score in the sample▯ • Mode- the most common score in the sample▯ Research Ethics▯ Research participants have rights ▯ • • Institutional Review Board (IRB)▯ • APA Guidelines▯ • Informed consent▯ • Confidentiality▯ • Debriefing▯ • Deception - placebo vs. active ingredient▯ Animal Research in Psychology▯ • Used to gain a better understanding and solutions to human problems▯ • Animal research has benefited humans ▯ • Used by 5% of researchers ▯ • Rats and mice used 90% of time▯ • Standards of care in animal research ▯ • Housing, feeding, psychological and physical well being▯ Reality TV - Ethical Issues▯ • Informed consent?▯ • Deception?▯ • Psychological and/or physical risk?▯ • Is the behavior real?▯ • Testimonial?▯ Propaganda techniques?▯ • A Wise Consumer… Is skeptical yet open-minded!▯ Cautions▯ • Exercise caution in applying group trends to individuals experience▯ • Avoid over generalizing results▯ • Look for converging evidence▯ • Questions causal inferences ▯ • Consider the source
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