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Notes from 1/29/16

by: Kaylin Higgins

Notes from 1/29/16 ATR 200

Kaylin Higgins
GPA 3.08
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Functional Anatomy for Athletic Trainers
Taylor Maylee

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These notes cover what we learned on 1/29/16 and cover the 4 compartments and their muscles we were responsible for as well as the common lower leg injuries. All information was found either in cla...
Functional Anatomy for Athletic Trainers
Taylor Maylee
Class Notes




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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaylin Higgins on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ATR 200 at Central Michigan University taught by Taylor Maylee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Functional Anatomy for Athletic Trainers in Physical Education at Central Michigan University.

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Date Created: 01/28/16
ORIGIN INSERTION AND ACTION OF THE LOWER LEG All of the muscles divided into their four compartments below Q What is a compartment A A compartment is the way that the muscles of the lower leg are divided 1 Posterior Compartment pg 371 in Trail Guide Muscle Origin Insertion Action Gastrocnemius Medial and Lateral Condyles of the Femur Posterior Surfaces Calcaneus via the calcaneal tendon 1 Flex the knee 2 Planter Flex the ankle Soleus Soleal line proximal Calcaneus via the 1 Planter Flex the posterior surface of calcaneal tendon ankle tibia and posterior aspect of head of bula 2 Anterior Compartment pg 379 in Trail Guide Muscle Origin Insertion Action Extensor Middle anterior Distal phalanx of the 1 Extend the rst toe Hallicus surface of bula and rst toe 2 Dorsi ex the ankle Longus interosseous 3 Invert the foot membrane Extensor Lateral condyle of Middle and distal 1 Extend the second Digitorum tibia proximal phalanges of second through fth toes Longus anterior shaft of bula through fth toes 2 Dorsi ex the ankle and interosseous 3 Evert the foot membrane Tibialis Lateral condyle of the Medial cuneiform and 1 Invert the foot Anterior tibia proximal lateral base of the rst 2 Dorsi ex the ankle surface of tibia and interosseous membrane metatarsal 3 Deep Posterior Compartment pg 382 in Trail Guide Muscle Origin Insertion Action Tibialis Proximal posterior All ve tarsal bones and 1 Invert the foot Posterior shafts of tibia and bases of the second 2 Plantar Flex the bula and through fourth ankle interosseous metata rsals membrane Flexor Middle posterior Distal phalanges of 1 Flex the second Digitorum surface of the tibia second through fth though fth toes Longus toes 2 Weak Plantar Flexion of the ankle Flexor Hallicus Longus Middle half of posterior tibia Distal phalanx of rst toe 1 Flex the rst toe 2 Weak Plantar Flexion of the ankle 3 Invert the foot 0 Tom Dick AN Harry There is a mnemonic that corresponds with the initials of the tendons and vessels in the order that they pass the medial malleolous Tibialis Posterior is the most anterior followed by Flexor Digitorum the Tibial Artery Tibial Nerve and then the Flexor Hallicus 4 Lateral Compartment pg 376 in Trail Guide Muscle Origin Insertion Action Peroneus Head of bula and Base of the rst 1 Evert the foot Longus proximal twothirds of metatarsal and medial 2 Assist to Planter Flex lateral bula cuniform the ankle Peroneus Distal twothirds of Tuberosity of fth 1 Evert the foot Brevis lateral bula metatarsal 2 Assist to Panter Hex the ankle INJURIES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY William E Prentice amp online resources Knee Chapter 20 in Prentice Sprains Generally considered the most serious ligament injury No agreement among experts about the MOI for ACL injuries Commonly believed to be from sudden cutting movements The PCL is at risk when the leg is at a 90 angle Referred to as the quotdashboard injuryquot because it usually occurs in car accidents when the tibia is forced posteriorly Most commonly from a direct blow from the lateral side in a medial direction valgus force Most commonly from a direct blow from the medial side in a lateral direction varus force Meniscal Injury A valgus force can adduct the knee often tearing and stretching the MCL meanwhile its bers twist the medial meniscus outward The lateral meniscus can sustain an oblique tear by forceful knee extension with the femur externally rotated Overuse Most common in runners When the iliotibial band which runs from the hip to the knee is tight or in amed from overuse or increase in millage too quickly When the bursas in a speci c body part are in amed and irritating the surrounding structures An in ammation of the tissue tendons connecting muscle to bone A disease that causes a tightness of the knee that causes the tibial tuberosity to chip off and ossify Lower Leg Chapter 19 in Prentice Acute A rupture of the Achilles tendon is possible in activities that require stopandgo action It is normally the result of a sudden pushingoff action of the forefoot with the knee being forced into complete extension May occur because of chronic in ammation Result from a direct or indirect trauma identi ed by bony displacement and deformity crepitus and loss of limb function are usually present a condition where one of the four compartments of the lower leg causes compression of muscular and neurovascular structures within that compartment Occurs secondary to direct trauma to the area eg quotI ve been kickedshot Does not involve trauma can evolve with minimal to moderate activity Chronic quotShin Splintsquot a catchall term that indicates pain in the anterior part of the shin Commonly conditions such as stress fractures muscle strains and chronic anterior compartment syndromes Ankle Chapter 18 amp 19 in Prentice Acute Many MOI s A foot that is forcefully abducted can produce a transverse fracture of the distal tibia and bula OR a foot that is planted in combination with a forced internal rotation of the leg OR an avulsion fracture Injury to the ligament Injury of the talo bular ligament which functions to stop forward subluxation of the talus caused by inversion plantar exed and internally rotated of the foot A foot excessively pronates is hypermobile or has a depressed medial longitudinal arch is more predisposed to eversion ankle injuries quothigh ankle sprainsquot are isolated injuries to the distal tibiofemoral joint These ligaments are torn with increased external rotational or forced dorsi exion Chronic In ammation of the calcaneal bursae is most commonly caused by repetitive trauma or overuse and the condition is aggravated by friction such as when athletes wear either loose tting shoes When the muscles and tendons can t grow fast enough to keep up with the bones during rapid growth and the structures are stretched too tight affecting the apophysis of the calcaneus Foot Chapter 18 in Prentice Acute 5 Lisfranc Injury The ankle is plantar exed with the rear foot locked and there is a sudden forceful hyperplantar exion of the forefoot the results in the displacement of the proximal end of the metatarsals Sprains of the metatarsophalangeal joints MTj quotTurf Toequot A hyperextension of the rst phalange results in a sprain of the metatarsophalangeal joint either from repetitive stress or trauma most likely a dorsal dislocation of the middle phalanx proximal joint usually occur by kicking an object stubbing a toe or being stepped on Occurs by kicking an object stubbing a toe or being stepped on A fracture to the diaphysis of the fth metatarsal by either repetitive stress or trauma Chronic Tension develops in the plantar fascia both during extension of the toes and during depression of the longitudinal arch as a result of weight bearing activities


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