Chapter 2 and Chapter 3
Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 PSYCH 3240
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lucy Stevens on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3240 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Claudio Cantalupo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see PSYCH 3240 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
End of Chapter 2 1-28-16 HW: Read through page 143 in Chapter 5 Understand the chart at the end of chapter 2 *A typical neuron receives EPSPs and IPSPs from about 1000 other neurons. *EPSPs and IPSPs are combined at the axon hillock in two ways 1. Temporal Summation: PSPs arriving around the same time 2. Spatial Summation: PSPs arriving at the same time *What happens to the neurotransmitter left in the synaptic cleft? -Reuptake: Molecules are reabsorbed by the terminal and packaged into vesicles. Sometimes the molecules are broken up into smaller pieces. -Glial cells sometimes scoop out or remove the molecules from the cleft and send them back to the terminal. *Many drugs work because they look similar to and take the place of the neurotransmitter. *Some drugs are reuptake inhibitors. Ex: anti-depressant drugs Synaptic Modulation -The adjustment of activity occurring at the synapse. Type of Synapses: 1. Axosomatic Synapse a. Located between the terminal button of one neuron and the soma of another neuron. 2. Axodendritic Synapse a. Located between the terminal button of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron. 3. Axoaxonic Synapse a. Located between the terminal button of one neuron and the terminal button of another neuron. b. The neurotransmitters form the one axon can affect the membranes permeability to calcium on the other neuron c. Presynaptic Excitation: an increase in the release in neurotransmitters by the presynaptic neuron. d. Presynaptic Inhibition: a decrease in the release of neurotransmitters by the presynaptic neuron Axoaxonic: presynaptic excitation/ inhibition Autoreceptors: special proteins in the presynaptic membrane that work as sensors to detect the amount of neurotransmitters in the cleft. Similar to how a thermostat works. *These BOTH help regulate the amount of neurotransmitters that are in the cleft.* Receptors in Postsynaptic Membrane: change in sensitivity or in number to counterbalance for unusual increases or decreases of neurotransmitter in the cleft Neurotransmitters *Chemical signals that are released by one neuron at the synapse and that affect other neurons. *Know the table of neurotransmitters found at the end of chapter two. *GABA is important (Hint-Hint) *Know most prevalent and what they do. Neurotransmitter Function Acetylcholine Transmitter at muscles Monamines Serotonin Mood, sleep, arousal, aggression, depression Dopamine Movement control Norepinephrine Released during stress; increases attentiveness and arousal Epinephrine Plays a minor role as a neurotransmitter in the brain. Related to norepinephrine Amino Acids Glutamate Excitatory; involved in learning GABA Inhibitory; receptors respond to alcohol Glycine Inhibitory; Peptides Endorphins Reduce pain; enhance reinforcement Substance P Pain Neuropeptide Y Initiates eating; metabolic shifts Gas Nitric Oxide Influences the presynaptic neuron to release neurotransmitters *Excitatory Neurotransmitters affect sodium channels. Neurotransmitter: a chemical that your own body produces Drug: a chemical that comes from the outside that has an affect on your nervous system. Depending on the effects you classify the drug as an agonist or an antagonist a) Agonist: a chemical that mimics or increases the effect of a neurotransmitter a. Morphine activates the receptors for Endorphins (direct) b. Some agonists act more indirectly b) Antagonist: a chemical that blocks the effect of a neurotransmitter a. Curare blocks acetylcholine receptors at the muscles and causes paralysis. (direct) b. Some antagonists act more indirectly Chapter 3 *Macroscopic Level of the Nervous System Macroscopic: How the billions of neurons in our body are all grouped together into different components. Central Nervous System (CNS): Made up of the brain and the spinal chord and where most of the processing takes place. CNS is made up of one type of neurons called interneurons. *Could you survive with just the CNS? -yes but for only a fraction of a second. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): made up of cranial nerves and spinal nerves. Cranial Nerves: connect to the brain Spinal Nerves: connect to the spinal chord *A neuron is a single cell. *A nerve is a bundle of axons of many neurons in the PNS. *A tract is a bundle of axons of many neurons in the CNS. Anatomical Direction of the Nervous System *Neuraxis: imaginary line drawn through the center of the CNS from the bottom of the spinal chord to the front of the forebrain. The BRAIN Horizontal Section: you cannot see the dorsal/ ventral part of the brain. You can only see medial/ lateral and anterior/posterior.
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