Chapter 3 Continued 2-2-16
Chapter 3 Continued 2-2-16 PSYCH 3240
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lucy Stevens on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3240 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Claudio Cantalupo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see PSYCH 3240 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Chapter 3 (Continued) 2-2-16 The Brain Horizontal Section: you cannot see the dorsal/ ventral part of the brain. You can only see medial/ lateral and anterior/posterior. Sagital Section: you cannot see the medial/lateral part of the brain. You can see the dorsal/ventral and anterior/posterior. Coronal Section: you cannot see the anterior/posterior part of the brain. You can see medial/lateral and the dorsal/ventral. TEST QUESTION (This is important: Will point to one of the exhibits of brain and ask what view it is.) *Brain: largest portion of the CNS. *Following approach in the textbook regarding the brain. *Neural Tube: embryos precursor to the central nervous system Development 3 WEEKS: Part of the tube grows at different rates. You can see the 3 major portions emerging. Forebrain, Midbrain, hindbrain. 7 WEEKS: cranial nerves begin to form. 11 WEEKS: the forebrain has taken over in terms of development. The other parts aren’t developing as fast. At BIRTH: the hindbrain has expanded. All three parts expanded at different rates, so that they end up as recognizable organs. 1. Forebrain: largest part of the brain. a. Corpus Callosum b. Thalamus c. Hypothalamus 2. Midbrain: 3. Hindbrain: a. Pons b. Cerebellum: largest part (little brain attached to the back of the big brain) c. Medulla: starts where the pons ends and turns into the spinal chord. Cerebral Hemispheres Cortex 1. Outer surface that is wrinkled with grooves and ridges a. Ridge=gyrus b. Groove=sulcus c. Mainly made of unmyelinated cell bodies that appear gray (GRAY MATTER) d. In the center of the gyruses there are myelinated axons all clustered together and it looks white (WHITE MATTER) *A very large sulcus is called a fissure. *A central fisher separates the left and right hemispheres. *Clusters of gray mater are called nuclei. Four Major Lobes 1. Frontal Lobe a. Central sulcus because it runs in the middle of the hemisphere and represents the posterior boundary b. Lateral Fissure represents the posterior boundary 2. Parietal Lobe a. Parietoocipital Sulcus is the posterior boundary of this section 3. Occipital Lobe a. Processes vision 4. Temporal Lobe a. Most ventral lobe b. Separated from others by the lateral fissure c. There isn’t really a sulcus that really separates this lobe from the others. Roles of the Lobes 1. Frontal Lobe: a. Precentral Gyrus (Primary Motor Cortex): Controls voluntary movement. One hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body, which explains how you can have paralysis on one side of the body. Located in front of the Central Sulcus. b. Topographical organization of body muscles. i. Motor Homunculus: When certain regions of the cortex become active, you see a certain part of the body also start moving. ii. So many muscles controlling the mouth because of speech. c. Broca’s Area: (motor area of speech) named for a French neurologist. He had a patient who had a stroke and recovered, after having some paralysis, except for t he ability to speak. Could comprehend speech and pronounce “tan.” They performed an autopsy on Mr. Tan after he died to find no lesio ns on the right side of the brain. Area affected now called Broca’s Area. i. Controls speech and articulation ii. Grammatical structure iii. Lateralized to the left area iv. Lesion to the right side Broca’s Area is less likely to cause speech issues. v. Broca’s Aphasia 1. Impaired word production 2. Unimpaired word comprehension d. Prefontal Cortex: Involved in planning, impulse control, and decision making i. Composed of highly sophisticated neural function. ii. Associative cordial region: involved in performing higher level processing iii. “Central Executive” part of the brain 2. Parietal Lobe: a. Postcentral Gyrus (Primary Somatosensory Cortex): Processes skin senses, body positioning. One hemisphere serves the opposite side of the body b. Topographical Organization c. Association Cortex: i. further sensory information processing ii. Integrates information from other senses iii. Locations of objects in space d. Unilateral Neglect: ignoring objects on the opposite side to the damage. Not a perceptual problem 3. Occipital Lobe: processes visual stimulations a. Primary Visual Cortex (V1): back part where you find the neurons that are first activated when the retina sees light. b. Secondary Visual Cortex surrounds the Primary Visual Cortex and are numbered V2, V3, V4, etc.
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