Bio 1009 Lecture Notes
Bio 1009 Lecture Notes bio 1009
U of M
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by veronicaturtu on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to bio 1009 at University of Minnesota taught by Cheryl in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General biology in Biology at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Lecture #4 1.28.2015 Modern Cell Theory 1. All organisms are composed of cells 2. The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living things 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells by division Three domain classifications Domain bacteria (eubacteria; prokaryotes) o Most known prokaryotes o Peptidoglycan cell wall Domain archaea o methanogens (poisoned by O2) o extreme halophiles (high salt) o extreme thermophiles (high temperature) Domain Eukarya o Protista o Fungi o Animals o Plants Cell surface area to volume- hold genetic material, but can’t be too large (UL) because can only let things in that it can handle efficiently; increasing number of cells not size of cells (in animals) Prokaryotic Cell Various shapes Genetic material is in a nucleoid; large circular piece of DNA Plasmids are small pieces of DNA that have specific types of genes that are often antibiotic genes or help them survive in the environment that they are in ; have ribosomes and plasma membrane and cell wall that peptidoglycan and have a sticky capsule that allows them to connect in a colony Cell wall: o Gram positive: take up purple color, thick cell wall outside of the plasma membrane o Gram negative: more pathogenic, take up pink/red, thin cell wall with plasma membrane and outer membrane- prevent drugs from getting in and immune system protection against the host Reproduction: o Diversity due to rapid reproduction which lead to natural selection taking it course after mutations take place o Grow in a colony manner Genetic recombination o Transduction: attach to cell, inject genetic material, then cuts up host, reforms, and goes to next host o Bacteria conjugation: sex pilus and one piece of DNA can be transferred between prokaryotes o Transformation: through plasmid that’s taken out by another bacteria o Specialized cells: heterocyte- fixation for N o Biofilm: living to bring nutrients in and excrete waste- special living arrangement o Endospores- replicate DNA, put in thick wall, then dries out and can be rehydration Carbon: Autotroph- an organism that requires only carbon dioxide as a carbon source Heterotroph- an organism that requires at least one organic nutrients Obligate aerobes- use oxygen for cellular respiration Facultative anaerobes- can live with or without oxygen Obligate anaerobes- poisoned by oxygen Impacts: 1. Symbiotic relationships 2. Disease 3. Recycles-degrade organic material 4. Bioremediation 5. Nitrogen fixation Characteristics 1. Cell wall 2. Plasma membrane 3. Ribosomes 4. Flagella –slightly different because use it to move 5. DNA (nucleoid) & RNA 6. Plasmids (extra chromosomal material)
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