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Anat 3601/3611

by: veronicaturtu

Anat 3601/3611 ANAT 3001

U of M
GPA 3.9

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Lecture notes from the first two weeks of class. Prep for first midterm and quizzes.
Human Anatomy
Barnett, Vincent; Cook, Mark
Class Notes
human anatomy notes lecture quiz midterm organized
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by veronicaturtu on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANAT 3001 at University of Minnesota taught by Barnett, Vincent; Cook, Mark in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Anatomy at University of Minnesota.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
Anatomy Lecture #1 Regions/ Surfaces of body 1.20.16  See slide  Make flashcards Four basic tissues  Dorsum of hand and foot are the same  Planter/palmer of hand and foot are the same  Epithelia (lining)  Led=knee down  Connective tissues  Muscles tissues  Thigh=knee to pelvis  Nervous tissues Planes Anatomical Position  Sagittal plane o Split into right and left halves  Superior (head)  Coronal plane  Inferior (feet)  ALL positions as in anatomical position o Ventral and dorsal halves  Horizontal or transverse plane  Anterior=ventral o Superior and inferior halves  Posterior=dorsal  Patients’ right or left Body cavities  Medial= midline  Thorax  Lateral= away from midline o See slides/notes in notebook  Distal= distance  Make flashcards  Proximal= closer to point of attachment Lecture #2 1.22.16 Epithelium Tissues: Epithelia = border/lining  Four basic tissues: epithelia, muscle, connective (in-between, lots), nervous  Composed of two parts: cells & matrix (extracellular of the cells/ fibers/ ground substance)  Characteristics: o Polarized, lines & protects surfaces/borders o Cell junctions o Produces a basement membrane o Avascular o High cell death & regeneration o Glands (glandular epithelia secrete substances) apical surface- exposed to the lumen (open space in a tube)  Functions o Covers and lines a surface that communicates with the outside worlds o Provides a barrier o Secretions o Absorbs substances 1  Mesothelial- line the cavities of the body (middle) o Serous membrane  Endothelium- line vascular tubes o Lines hear and blood  Epidermis- exposed to outside world  True epithelia o Mucus membranes o Exposed to outside o Cutaneous or a mucosa  Tight junctions- prevent leaks  Anchored to basement membranes  Gap junction is an open pore that can transport other molecules that service a function  Avascular= no blood vessels in the epithelia o Connective tissue below will have the blood vessels  Produces metabolic waste that is released into connective tissues  Form glands (secretory) o Tubular o Alveolar Classification 1. Number of cell layers (single or multiple- simple or stratified) a. Protection because thick b. Thin allows gases to enter & exit (lung, capillary) 2. Shape of apical cell (squamous, cuboidal, or columnar) a. Simple columnar is good at doing stuff- kidney 3. Obvious specializations Transitional Epithelium- cells consistently changing, found in the urinary system Pseudostratified columnar- all cells are attached to basement membrane; different shape; comes with or without cilia (known to extract mucus with gap junctions) Goblet cells- produce mucus that goes into the lumen Connective Tissues: Types: connective tissues proper (loose- areolar, fat; dense- regular and irregular), bone, cartilage, blood, lymphoid (reticular) Functions  Encapsulate- surround organs, muscles blood vessels, nerves  Carry and store nutrients, insulation  Bony skeleton for support  Fight infection Characteristics 2  Cells-fibroblasts (make fibers and ground substance), macrophages (phagocytic cells), adipocytes (fat cells), blood cells  Matrix- collagen fibers and ground substance (dense is mostly fibers) o Collagen-strongest o Elastics- rubber band like fibers o Reticular-fuzzy net  Ground substance- fluid that surrounds cells and fibers; jell-like substance to hold interstitial fluid secreted by fibroblasts, proteoglycans fluid Loose- areolar, adipose (lots of adipocytes), reticular (mostly ground substance) Areolar- most common, under epithelia, surrounds muscles, nerves, and blood vessels, retains fluid, defends against infection, fibroblasts (make collagen & elastic fibers & ground substance), macrophages (phagocytose particles and organisms), blood cells fight infection, adipocytes (store fat & provide cushion & protection) Collagen type I fiber: abundant and strong Adipose- round, primary cell is adipocyte, filled with lipids, energy storage, packing/protection, lipid removed & nucleus of adipocyte moves to edge of the cell membrane Reticular- thick fibers, spleen, liver, arranged in networks, form stroma or structure or lymph nodes, bone marrow Collagen type III Dense- regular, irregular (parallel or not- parallel is weak); more fibers (collagen type I), fewer cells (fibroblasts), less ground substance (fluid), dermis, tendons, ligaments Lecture #3 1.25.2016 History of Anatomy Anatomy in antiquity- human dissection was not allowed Middle ages- only two systems known based on liver and heart; then ban on human dissection was removed at universities; always believe Galen Early modern age- Vesalius did his own dissections and created his own atlas; H. Fabricius found circulation of blood The medical gaze- surgeon removed limbs in less than 3 minutes due to no anesthesia; France established public hospitals with free medical care, but then their bodies were used for science when they died; grave robing was popular Morbid anatomy= anatomical pathology 1850s- Microscopic level Cartilage Connective Tissue 3 Three Types: hyaline, elastic & fibro-cartilage 1. Chondrocytes (cartilage + cell) 2. Chondroblast (chondrocyte precursor); perichondrium (around + cartilage) 3. Lacunae- surround chondrocyte 4. Collagen fivers provide strength 5. Ground substance 6. May have elastic fibers Membrane= epithelium + connective tissue Cutaneous membrane= skin Epidermis (“true”), basement membrane, and dermis (the C.T.) Mucous membrane = produces mucus Epithelium (“true”), basement membrane, and lamina propria (the C.T.) Serous membrane= produces serous membranes, surround body cavity Epithelium (“mesothelium”), basement membrane, and lamina propria (the C.T.) Endothelia= lines blood vessels and heart Epithelium (“endothelium”), basement membrane, and lamina propria (the C.T.) Synovial membrane= joints SEE SLIDES TO FINISH NOTES ABOVE  Epithelia + connective tissues  “True Epithelium” o Mucus membrane o Exposed to the outside world o Can be cutaneous or a mucosa  “Mesothelium” middle epithelium o Serous membrane o Lines a body cavity o Simple squamous epithelium & a lamina propria  “Endothelium” internal membrane o Tunica intima & endocardium o Lines vessels & heart o Simple squamous epithelium & a lamina propria Fascia  Mixed layers of connective tissues o Skin- epidermis; stratified squamous + dermis (dense irregular c.t.) o Superficial- under the dermis; areolar + adipose o Deep- dense regular + irregular c.t. 4 Skin- integument- cutaneous membrane (epidermis & dermis)- system (skin, nerve cells, hair, nails, & glands) Functions: temp regulations, protection, water retention, metabolic retention (vitamin D), immune defense (dendritic/ “Langerhans cells”), sensory innervation (Meissner’s, merkel’s, Pacinian, ruffini), excretion, barrier against trauma, chemicals, toxins, microbes, heat & cold, solar radiation (melanocytes) Largest organ- 10% of body weight Hypodermis = areolar +adipose connective tissues Integument- stratified squamous epithelium (epidermis) & dense irregular connective tissue proper (dermis) Melanocytes: protects from radiation- found in bottom layer of the epidermis Water retention and gain; do not dehydrate (when severely burned, skin cannot prevent dehydration, trans-epidermal and respiratory= 1 pint per day); do not swell-up Sweat glands:  Insensible perspiration- normal  Sensible perspiration- sweating o Salt & acid mixes with oils o Cooling, oily barrier o Acid kills bacteria Temp Regulation  Body temp regulated by sweat glands (evaporation) & blood flow (release heat) o Conversely, a cold body will reduce flow to skin, to keep heat in body  Vasodilation: dilating artery to allow more blood flow, more release of heat  Vasoconstriction: constrict artery to reduce blood flow, less heat release (retain heat in core) Metabolic Regulation (Vit. D)  UV radiation >> epidermis >> cholecalciferol >> vitamin D >> kidney >> calcitriol >> increased calcium and phosphorus uptake >> healthy bones  Lack of UV (sun) = lack of vitamin D = bone disorders (“rickets”) Immune Defense  Dendritic/“Langerhans” cells in epidermis (stratified squamous epithelium)  Phagocytizing microbes >> protection and initiation of immune response Sensory Innervation  Nerve endings that detect heat, touch, pressure, texture, and vibration (from surface to bottom layer of Dermis) o Meissner’s corpuscles- fine touch o Merkel’s corpuscles- fine touch or pressure (texture and shape) o Free nerve endings- pain, close to epidermis o Pacinian corpuscles- deep pressure 5 o Ruffini corpuscle- warmth Thin skin- most of body; has hair and sebaceous glands Thick skin- palms and fingers of hands & soles and toes of feet; extra layer of epidermis, no hair or sebaceous glands ***all have sweat glands 1. Stratum Basale a. Single layer, tightly attached to basement membrane b. All layers contain Keratinocytes (produce Keratin - for strength and water-proof) c. Keratinocyte Stem cells – make new keratinocytes d. Melanocytes – produce Melanin in response to UV light. Keratinocytes phagocytosis pigment = dark e. Merkel’s corpuscles = Fine touch or pressure (texture and shape by stimulating sensory nerve endings) 2. Stratum Spinosum (“spiny-cell layer”) a. Several layers b. Mature Keratinocytes attached to each other by desmosomes (which cause a “Spiny” appearance) c. Dendritic or Langerhans’s cell – phagocytes of immune system = immune response 3. Stratum Granulosum (“granular layer”) a. Several layers b. Keratohyalin (keratinization) and Lamellar (lipid) granules – water-proofing c. Keratinization begins – keratin (intermediate) filaments fill Keratinocytes, cross-link – cells become thin d. Nucleus and organelles start to disintegrate 4. Stratum Lucidum (“clear layer”) a. Several layers – found only in thick skin b. Cells appear empty 5. Stratum Corneum (“Horny layer”) a. 20 layers – most superficial – apical surface – lines the surface b. Tightly packed dead cells. Keratin, lipid, and excreted acids form a strong surface. Sloughing Epidermal Derivatives: nails, hair, exocrine glands (mammary glands); invaginations from epidermis-extend into dermis; nails and hair are dead, keratinized cells The Dermis Primarily collagen, but also elastic & reticular fibers; blood vessels, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, ahir follicles, nerve ending Two layers: 1. Papillary (“nipple”) a. Areolar connective tissue b. Dermal papillae >> epidermal ridges c. Capillaries (for epidermis) d. Free Nerve ending, Meissner’s 2. Reticular (“web, woven”) a. Dense irregular 6 b. Heavy collagen c. Looks woven d. Connects with hypodermis below Hypodermis = subcutaneous layer = superficial fascia -contains both areolar & adipose connective tissues; interwoven with fibers of reticular layer of dermis; site of hypodermal injections Exocrine glands- excrete substance into duct- opens onto epithelium; epidermis, digestive or respiratory organ, etc.)— secretion methods: “merocrine”, “holocrine”, or “apocrine” Endocrine- secretes hormones and circulates in the cardiovascular system Lecture #4 1.27.2016 Skin Exocrine glands (excrete substance into duct – opens onto epithelium (epidermis, digestive or respiratory organ, etc.) Merocrine- granule released by exocytosis (sweat- eccrine glands); tears, salvia, digestive glands of stomach and pancreas (most in body) Holocrine- explodes and cellular contents are released into duct; oil glands- oil and dead cells to prevent drying, excrete into hair follicles; whole cell is released Apocrine- breaks off and released (some part of the cell- giving bacteria a food source) into duct (sweat and cell fragments) Mammary glands- apocrine excretion Ceruminous glands- wax are apocrine excretion Excrete: milk, mucus, saliva, enzymes, and waste products Stroma: framework VS parenchyma: functional cells of gland Unicellular- goblet cell (mucus that coats cell wall) Multicellular- acinar cell (produce substance then follows duct and lumen out) Acinar Cells- categories by excretion  Serous glands produce serous fluid- sweat, tears, saliva  Mucus glands produce mucus- mucin + water – digestive and respiratory system  Mixed glands can produce both serous and mucus – saliva Skin exhibits most of the mechanisms of secretion: 7 1. Merocrine – secretion granules are released ……... Eccrine sweat glands 2. Apocrine – the apex of cell is released ………..…. Apocrine sweat glands 3. Holocrine – the whole cell is released ………..……. Sebaceous glands 4. Cytogenous – part of cell is transferred to another … Melanocytes Embryonic  3 layers- ectoderm- epidermis development, mesoderm- forms everything in-between, and endoderm-form tube for digestive (grow and form the embryo)  Epidermis and nerves derived from the ectoderm  Dermis and blood vessels are derived from mesoderm  Gut tube derived from endoderm Cartilage & Bone  Connective tissue system  Functions of cartilage- o Supporting soft tissue o Providing a gliding surface at articulations o Providing a model for the formation of most bones  Bony precursor or a “rough draft” that later ossifies into bone o Is the basis for some joints  Symphyses  Synchondroses  Synovial joints  Chondrocyte (cells)- maintain cartilage (live within the cartilage) o Live in lacunae o Matrix of cartilage includes fibers (collagen) and ground substance (complex sugar models) o Avascular o May grow by interstitial growth (growth in length)  Via normal mitosis  Two daughter cells occupy one lacuna  They secrete new matrix in order to separate which adds length o Apposition growth (grow in thickness/diameter)  Chondroblast secrete new matrix at the periphery of cartilage  Chondroblast- make new cartilage (secretion and move outward), precursors to cartilage- located beneath the perichondrium  Types o Fibrocartilage  Strengthens attachments of tendons and ligaments  Thick, regular collagen fibers prevents stretching and compression  Shock absorber  Lacks perichondrium  Dense collagen fibers arranged in regular pattern 8  Columns of chondrocytes separated by dense regular collagen fibers o Elastic  Least abundant  Highly flexible  Branched elastic fibers arranges in an irregular pattern (strength)  Ears, epiglottis, etc. o Hyaline  Most common  Absence of collagen fibers  Bone precursor  Chondrocytes within lacunae  Articular- in joints that are mobile; absence of perichondrium; wear down smooth, gliding surface Functions of Bone o Support and protection o Movement: muscle does not push or pull, it only shortens. If it anchors itself on two bones and shortens, it will cause movement o Hemopoiesis- blood cell production o Storage of mineral and energy reserve: homeostasis Organic  Collagen- protein, comprises 90% of organic content of bones, somewhat flexible Inorganic  Rigid, Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), contains citrate, fluoride, strontium Characteristics:  Bones are flexible and dynamic organs  Vascularized o Growth o Development o Remodel o Heal/regenerate  Can help us determine… o Size and shape o Sexual dimorphism o Stature o Population variation o Diet o Past trauma and pathologies  Cells: o Osteoblasts  Produce bone 9  Found in periosteum and endosteum  Small nucleus  Produce osteoid (protein matrix) when active  Osteocytes: maintains bones o Canaliculi- tiny canals that connect osteocytes o Housed in lacunae o Osteoblasts surrounded by bone  Osteoclast o Destruction of bone o Large multicellular o Help with remodeling of the bone during growth and repair Haversian system (osteons) - single unit of bone  Haversian canal/central canal  Lots of arties—vascularized  Grows in concentric circles  Lamella o Concentric around Haversian canal  Dark spots are the bony lacunae o Found in lamellae o House Osteocytes  Canaliculi o Thread-like canals that radiate from lacuna and connect lacunae Volkmann Canal- osteons communicate to each other via the canal ***Transmits blood vessels & nerves that support the cells within bone Densities  Compact (cortical) bone o Solid, dense bone in bone shafts and external surfaces  Cancellous (trabecular or spongey bone) o Lightweight, honeycombed bone o Long bone ends, protuberances, vertebral bones, short bones, & flat bones o Stress lines- allows us to have storage and be lighter weight o Bone marrow surrounds spongey bone ***compositionally identical, different only in porosity. Types  Long o Tubular shaft and articular surface at each end  Femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, radius, ulna  Shaft- diaphysis- first part to ossify and group  Epiphysis- long bone ends 10  Metaphysis- lots of growth (growth plate)  Medullary cavity- hallow, where bone marrow lives  Flat o Flat, thin, and have broad surfaces  Os coxa  Scapular  Ribs  Sternum  Neurocranial bones o Outer layers are compact bone separated by layers of trabecular bone (diploë)  Short o Tubular shafts and articular surfaces at each end, but are smaller and blocky o Clavicle, metacarpals, metatarsals, and phalanges  Irregular o Vary in size and shape o Compact in nature  Vertebrae  Facial skeleton  Carpals  Tarsals  Some skull bones like the sphenoid  Additional classification o Accessory- extra bones found near or between two bones  Wormian bones o Sesamoids-small & live inside tensions and live near or in joints  Patella Homeopoiesis  Red bone marrow o Production of blood cells o Children- spongey bone of the body o Adults- spongey bone of skull flat bones, vertebrae, ossa coxae, ribs, sternum, proximal humerus/femur  Yellow bone marrow o Adults- much of red bone marrow degenerates into fatty tissue  In severe blood loss, adults can turn yellow marrow back into blood cell producing red marrow! Homeostasis  Storage of minerals and energy reserves o More than 90% of the body’s calcium and phosphate reserve  Ca needed for muscle contraction, blood clotting and nerve impulse transmission  Phosphate is needed for ATP utilization o Lipids (potential energy) is stored in yellow bone marrow 11 Take home messages: o Three types of cartilage: hyaline (most abundant/bone precursor), elastic (least abundant), and fibrocartilage o Bone is both organic and inorganic o Functions: support body and anchor skeletal muscle o Bone is involved in hemopoiesis and homeostasis Bone Formation and Growth  Embryological precursors- trilaminar disk… (SEE PICTURE ON SLIDE) o Ectoderm o Mesoderm  Paraxial mesoderm  Cartilage and bone  Muscle  Dermis  Intermediate mesoderm  Urogenital system  Reproductive system  Lateral plate mesoderm  Body wall  Circulatory system  Extend into limbs o Endoderm Axial Skeleton formation  Intramembranous bones well formed by 12-20 weeks  Paraxial mesoderm gives rise to somites—42-44 block-like masses o Sclerotome- surround neural tube at week 4 o Ribs at week 5 o Dermatome- connective tissues of dermis o Myotome- axial skeletal muscle Appendicular skeleton formation  Limb buds begin to form at week 4  Lateral plate mesoderm extends out with limb bud  Appendicular skeleton forms as buds extend  Primary ossification center (bone shafts) start at week 8 Ossification- bone formation:::: Intramembranous formation: bone forms directly within the mesenchyme arranged in sheet-like layers; includes flat bones of the skull (roof and sides), facial bones, mandible, medial aspect of clavicle 12 Endochondral formation: mesenchyme develops into a cartilaginous model which then becomes bone; includes all other bones in the body 1. Initial formation of bone a. Mesenchyme- unspecialized embryonic cells that form the basis for all connective tissues b. Intramembranous bone formation: Within a membrane i. Development in 4 stages: 1. Development of the ossification center 2. Calcification 3. Formation of trabeculae and periosteum 4. Development of cortical bone and diploë ii. Ossification center 1. Mesenchyme clusters at the ossification center 2. Osteoblasts secret bony extracellular matrix (osteoid) iii. Calcification 1. Osteoblasts become osteocytes 2. Osteocytes extend canaliculi 3. Calcium et al. are deposited 4. Osteoid hardens iv. Formation of trabeculae and periosteum 1. Osteoid becomes trabecular bone 2. Blood vessels that bring nutrients into the developing bone become red bone marrow 3. On the exterior, mesenchyme becomes periosteum v. Development of cortical bone and diploë 1. Diploë is completed when cortical bone replaces outer layer of spongy bone 2. Growth and development a. Infancy, childhood, and adolescence b. Growth in two directions i. Interstitial growth 1. Epiphyseal growth plate is hyaline cartilage in the metaphysis 2. 4 zones of the metaphysis 3. Plates begin to fuse at adulthood- diaphyseal ossification catches up 4. Damage to growth plate can result in premature growth end ii. Appositional growth 1. Periosteal blood vessels are encompasses 2. Osteoblasts secrete matrix forming concentric lamellae 3. Remodeling a. Bone constantly replaces itself throughout life b. Wolff’s Law i. Bones is subjected to forces of compression, tension, shearing, bending, and torsion. Julius Wolff identified the basic tenet that bone is remodeled based on the forces acting on it—the new bone is deposited where needed and resorbed where not needed c. Remodeling is the ongoing replacement of old bone tissue by new bone tissue i. Bone resorption: removal minerals and collagen ii. Bone deposition: addition of minerals and collagen 13 d. At any given time, about 5% of your bone is being remodeled e. Renewal rate: ~4% /yr for compact bone; ~20% /yr for spongy bone f. Triggered by exercise, lifestyle change, change in diet, etc. g. Since strength of bone = degree of stress, new bone will grow stronger than the bone it replaced h. New bone can alter the shape based on lines of stress and strain (ex. Orthodontics) i. New bone is more resilient to facture j. Growth or resorption of woven bone to lamellar bone k. Wove bone i. Random distribution of collagen fibers ii. Lightly calcified iii. Forms quickly iv. Less strength l. Lamellar (mature or secondary) bone i. Remodeled from woven bone ii. Located in all normal adult bones 4. Repair of fractures a. Open/compound – protrudes through the skin b. Comminutes – splintered, crushed, or shattered bone c. Green stick – partial fracture; occurs in children who have more organic collagen than adults d. Stress—microscopic fissure from repeated, strenuous activities or disease Endochondral bone formation 1. Within cartilage 2. Development within 6 stages o Development of cartilaginous model  Mesenchyme crowd together in the general shape of future bone  Mesenchyme  chondroblasts  Chondroblasts secrete matrix producing the cartilaginous model hyaline cartilage  Perichondrium develops around cartilage o Growth of cartilaginous model  Growth happens like normal cartilaginous growth- interstitial growth (cell division) and appositional growth (chondroblasts)  As the model grows, the surrounding matrix begins to ossify  Chondrocytes begin to die o Development of primary ossification center  Nutrient artery penetrates perichondrium and calcifying model  Perichondrium  periosteum when osteoblasts are created  Osteoblasts then secrete osteoid o Development of medullary cavity  Osteoclasts break down the newly formed bone in the middle  This leaves a cavity in the diaphysis  The wall of the cavity is replaces by compact bone and endosteum o Development of secondary ossification centers  Around the time of birth 14  Epiphyseal arties penetrate epiphysis  Secondary ossification site develops o Formation of articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate  Hyaline cartilage at the epiphyses become the articular cartilage  The cartilage remains between the epiphyses and diaphysis until adulthood 15


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