NIU BIOS 357 Chapters 3 and 4, Cells, Tissues, and The Integumentary System
NIU BIOS 357 Chapters 3 and 4, Cells, Tissues, and The Integumentary System BIOS 357
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andre Fabile on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOS 357 at Northern Illinois University taught by Dr. Moira Jenkins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology in Biology at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Plasma Membrane o Phosphorus head is charged or polar (hydrophilic) o Fatty acid tails are non-charged and are hydrophobic. o Find proteins and cholesterol through plasma membrane o Sugar groups are attached to the proteins Plasma Membrane Proteins o Enzymes, receptors, carriers/channels o Integram = within (passing through o Peripheral = inner or outer side Membrane carbohydrate o At the outside of the cell o Ring like structure, glycocalyx “sugarcoat” o Acts in cell signaling and in some immune responses o Also protects the cell from some microbes. Cytoplasm o Cytosol Fluid that suspends other elements (fluid mainly water) Organelles are machinery that does work in cell Inclusions are stored nutrients or cell products Nucleus o Seperated by nuclear envelope that is a bilayer o Contains genetic materials in DNA that makes chromatin fibers (loose coul) Housed in nucleus and doesn’t leave nucleus Genetic code = chemical language of cell o DNA – all proteins o Gene- structure for 1 protein o Rough ER is attached to some of the nuclear pores o Can have more than one nucleolus Nucleoli o Inside nucleus o Related to protein production o Synthesize ribosomes o Ribosomes – free attached Where protein is synthesized Membrane Bound Organells o Rough ER studded ribosomes synthesize proteins, modified and packaged Transported to golgi apparatus abundant in cell o Smooth ER Synthesize lipids Detoxification o Golgo apparatus Series of flattened saccules adjoining the ER, modify and transport proteins for export Found away from nucleus, unlike rough and smooth ER Protein modified as it moves through layers of Golgi apparatus, then contents released out of Golgi apparatus where it’s exported out of the cell. All proteins made inside of the cell, either stay in the cell for organs or are sent out of the cell Membrane Bound Organelles o Mitochondria – “power house” of the cell, ATP cells with high metabolism o Glucose goes in cell, once in cytoplasm it goes through glycolysis, end results is ATP. ATP has 3 phosphorus attached to it, when that phosphorus breaks off there’s a high energy release sued to drive reactions (where cells get their energy) o Can create ATP without oxygen but not so much, need oxygen for creating a lot of ATP Lysosome – “suicide bombers” contain enzymes that digest old organelles or microbes Peroxisome – oxidase enzymes metabolize H202, alcohol, formaldehyde Cytoskeleton o Shape, strength, movement either within cell or surface of the cell o Microfilament – smallest (used to anchor things in cell, made of actin protein, we see a lot of this in muscle to cause muscle contractions, we also see in microvilli which is an extension of plasma membrane in cell) Helps increase surface area o Intermediate – tough Guy wires o Microtubules – large hollow tube, hollow center down through it Used for moving proteins through cell, centriole is made of microtubules Cilia can be confused for microvilli, cilia is longer and looks like hair structures Cilia actually moves, microvilli is usually stationary Tubulin proteins Centrioles, cilia, flagella Protein Synthesis o The nucleus contains chromosomes, DNA which directs protein synthesis o Code to make protein is in DNA, protein is made in cytoplasm Make copy of code in nucleus, and move it out to cytoplasm o DNA- genetic instructions for proteins 1 codon/3 bases codes for 1 amino acid o DNA can’t leave nucleus o Copy involves RNA, which is an intermediate in protein synthesis mRNA – messenger rRNA- ribosomal tRNA – transfer o Transcription – getting copy for instructions for DNA to RNA 9mRNA), in nucleus o Translation – mRNA moves through nuclear pore to a ribosome in cytoplasm, rRNA surrounds strand of mRNA. tRNA that has amino acid will be associated with ribosomal rRNA. Reminder: Proteins are amino acids linked through peptide bonds Membrane Transport o Permeability determines what moves in/out o Selective permeability (doesn’t let things through that has charge, because interior is hydrophobic and hates charges) o Products and waste moved in and out o Signals in/out o Transport can be Passive – no energy Diffusion- moving from area of high concentration to area of low concentration o Difference of concentration is called concentration gradient o Net movement until equal on both sides o Simple diffusion – water, small molecules and hydrophobic Facilitated diffusion is down gradient but uses a carrier protein (still passive transport) Osmosis – diffusion of water, water moves through membrane o Higher concentrations of solutes = lower concentration of water o Isotonic solution = no flow o Hypotonic = solution has less solute and water moves into the cell Hypotonic – causes cell to burst Isotonic – cell remains unchanged Hypertonic – cell shrivels up Active – needs energy (needs ATP) Against a gradient, requires energy (low to high concentration) Carrier proteins (against gradient) Ex: Sodium-Potassium pump Vesicular transport o Exocytosis (moving out of cell, opposite is endocytosis) o Endocytosis transport into cell phagocytosis (foreign material) Eating cell to destroy it Tissues o molecule-cell-tissue-organ-system-organism o Tissues are similar cells and the substances around them (extracellular matrix) o Cells and matrix = tissue o 4 types: Epithelial – protection and absorption, coverings and linings Connective tissue – compartmentalize, link, support Muscle- contraction Neural – electrical signaling for communication o Surface Linings and coverings Covering – epithelium Lining – endothelium Mesothelium Glandular All glands in body came from epithelium Epithelium function Protection – skin, mucous membranes (some line respiratory and genital tract) Absorption – digestive, excretory, CO2/O2 Secretion – sweat, mucus and other glands Sensation Barrier – water loss Closely packed- cells bound by tight junctions and desmosomes Polar- apical (free) surface exposed to surface or organ interior. o Basal surface attached to basement membrane Attachment- basal lamina/basement membrane Avascular – no blood supply Regeneration – “hard life”, see mitosis occur on regular bases o stem cells at basement membrane Intercellular Connections o Almost entirely cells, little matrix o 3 main types of intercellular connections Tight or occluding junctions- do not allow passage of material b/n cells, apical basal, stops passing material from apical to basal side Desmosomes- secure flexible connections, resist twist and stretch Hemidesmosome – anchor cell to basement membrane Gap junctions – specialized channels formed by proteins allow communication Classification of epithelium o Layers o Simple – 1 cell layer (passage) o Stratified – multiple cell layers Connective Tissue o Structural support, joins components together o Found everywhere o Cells scattered in extra cellular matrix, this determines tissue type o All connective tissue have cells, ground substance, and protein fibers (protein fibers made in cell and sent outside cell into extra cellular matrix) o Ground substance + protein fibers = matrix CT Fibers o Collagen – strongest o Elastic – stretchy, recoil o Reticular – thin and supportive o Ground substance is either sugars with proteins attached or proteins with sugars (proteoglycans) Huge molecules from gel like substance CT cell types o Blast cells (beginner) Secrete matrix Mature to –cytes Osteoblast- make matrix Osteocyte- maintain matrix o Cyte cells Maintain matrix in cartilage and bone live in lacuna o Clast cells – break down Chondroblast – makes matrix Chondrocyte – maintains matrix and lives in lacuna o Macrophages – large, eat debris and pathogens o Mast cells – release chemicals, release chemicals that start inflammation Most to least rigid o Bone > Cartilage > Dense connective > Loose connective > Blood (no fibers in blood, has precursor for fiber) o Bone – solid matrix, osseous, cement like Calcium salts make it hard o Cartilage – rubbery avascular issue (no blood supply) locations: tip of nose, ear Gelatinous matrix with many supportive fibers Mature cells are chondrocytes Sit in spaces – lacunae, in extensive matrix. If you see lacunae, it’s either bone or cartilage 3 types hyaline (most common) – joints like the knee elastic - ears fibrocartilage – in vertebral disk Dense connective tissue o Regular – collagen densely packed parallel bands, strong o Irregular – collagen usually founds in sheets, not as strong but can withstand pull in all directions Loose connective tissue- multiple cell types, syrupy matric o Areolar (most widely spread), acts as packaging/filler in bodies o Adipose (specialized, stores triglyceride) o Reticular (specialized, supportive framework) Blood o Most atypical connective tissue o No fibers o Transport materials around body Body membranes o Body membranes – physical barriers Repair o Replace destroyed tissue o Labile cells divide through life o Stabile cells – can divide after injury o Permanent cells – no ability to divide, usually replaced by connective tissue (scar tissue) o Epithelium – excellent o Connective tissue – good o Muscle – fair/poor o Cardiac and nervous – generally none CH. 4 Integumentary system o The integument is the largest system in the body o Made of 2 parts skin/cutaneous membrane accessory structures (hair, nails, exocrine or sweat glands) Skin o 2 parts epedrmis – epithelium stratified squamous avascular (diffusion) Dermis – Connective tissue 10x to 20x thicker cells grow in dermis and move up to epidermis Hypodermis o technically not part of the skin o Supplies nerves and blood to skin o loose connective tissue o beneath dermis, it’s subcutaneous o 50% of body fat stores subcutaneous o Injections Intradermal Hypodermal/subcutaneous Intramuscular Functions of integument o Protects o Maintain body temperature (blood flow, sweat gland) o Blood vessels in dermis/hypodermis constrict to get heat away from skin and put them more towards organs during cold weather and vice versa during hot weather o Excretes salts, water, and organic waste (glands) o synthesize vitamin D3 o Stores lipids o Detects pain, touch, vibration, pressure, and temperature. A lot of sensory nerves in skin. o Produces melanin and keratin o Dermis – 2 layers papillary extends to epidermis reticular is deeper dermis receives blood supply from underlying subcutaneous layer arteries “cutaneous plexus” Cells of epidermis o keratinocytes – most abundant, keratin protein fills cells, resist abrasion, water loss o Melanocytes – produce melanin packaged in melanosomes Layers of epidermis o Epidermis has 4-5 layers of cells o 1. stratum basale – deepest layer, high rate of mitoses o 2. stratum spinosum o 3. stratum granulosum o 4. Stratum lucidum (lucid, clear layer, thick skin) Thick skin o 5 layers in epidermis o found in soles of feet, palms, and fingertips o papilla are In parallel and produce curving ridges unique to individual which improve grip Skin color o blood circulating through skin (cyanosis-blue, erythema-red) o Thickness of skin o Melanin – pigments produced by melanocytes that effect skin, hair, and eye color o Melanocyte number same, production of melanin is what is different o Melanin production based on genetics and exposure to sunlight o Aid to diagnosing erythema – infection, sunburn, inflammation Cyanosis – decreased oxygen, heart, lungs Jaundice – bile, yellowish hue, liver disease Carotene – orange pigment, carrots Lipid soluble so deposits in adipose Vitiligo – melanocytes lost, ? immune Albino – have melanocyte, don’t make melanin Vitamin D production o Skin – 7dehydrocholesterol o Ultraviolet B light converts it to cholecalciferol/D3 o Liver to kidney to active form calcitriol o Calcitriol stimulates calcium ad phosphate uptake at intestines o Impaired bone maintenance and growth o Chronic pain Skin cancer o Most common form of cancer o Direct correlation to amount of melanin, sunburn, and uv accumulation o 3 main types – basal cell –most common, least worrisome Squamous Melanoma- least common but most dangerous Accessory structure of skin – hair o Covered except Palms Soles Lips Portions of genitalia o Functions Protects from bacteria and insulate Guards openings sensitive to very light touch Arrector pili muscle – involuntary smooth muscle (goose bumps) Accessory – sweat glands o 2 types o Merocrine – almost everywhere, secret sweat, water and salts, response to heat or emotion o Apocrine – open into hair follicles in axilla and genitalia Secrete thicker sweat (body odor) o Sebaceous gland- secrete oil
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