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Chapter One: Matter & measurements

by: Jessica Brown

Chapter One: Matter & measurements

Marketplace > Arizona State University > > Chapter One Matter measurements
Jessica Brown
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About this Document

This chapter is a overall general view of what chemistry will be about this semester.
Class Notes
113, Chem, Chemistry, periodic table, ASU, spring




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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Brown on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Arizona State University taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
Chapter One Matter 84 Measurement Tuesday January 12 2016 122 PM States of Matter They can adjust their volume depending on their container Meaning they can expand Liguids They take the form oftheir container Solids They have a definite shape and volume Suoercritical Fluids Found in high pressure and can behave as gas and liquid Ex The liquids you use to remove stains out of yourclothing Watvr vapor lu39 liquid waivr Ku39wwlw a Classification of Matter images from class lecture notes Main 1 No Is it uniform YES throughout m mom Dmitluvca Nquot Yrs variable I composition I quotW I39m about 1 lolu onl 3K 1 Can it be separated 5 lnlo ulmpln I whine I I I39mquot Compound 39 l o o a Q 0 a Ach at m clungm bl lulnulcs IC Mnlu ults id Mutun ul drmc b I an km n I umgxuml and I impound Elements The Periodic Table Over a little 100 known elements There are 11 Gases at room temperature 2 Liquid elements Mercury and Bromine The rest are solids and most metals u 1 1 l 11 32 Na Mg l39gquot 26 K Ca 39 3quot H Rb Sr 5 3943 5770 Cs 33 39102 Fr 39l anthamrle serms 39 39 Actmude senes La 111i 91 752 131 3995 96 97 93 91339 quotquot1 639139L 102 Ac Th Pa Np Pu Am Cm Bk C f Es Fm No Pr Nd PT 63 Eu Gd Tb Dy H9 Er Tm Yb Noble gases are the high and mighty gases and can39t react with anything else Metallic Elements Properties are Flexible can be hammered into another shape Ll ln nl inl II IP39I39AV39 n I IMAP39I39l l nlnr quot395 He s 39 quot5quot quot1390quot B C N O F Ne u 13 1 1 1 21 3916 Al SI P S Cl Ar 39239139quot quot3 2quot quot2quotquot 5 z 3923quot 3398 56 3 1 quot39s z 395 339s quot5 Sc TI V Cr Mn Fe Co N1 Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr quot395 quot0 quot 14quot 1 391 939 so quot539 quot3955quot quots Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe 171 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 32 83 u 85 86 Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb BI P At quotquot H H W103 104 105 106 107 103 109 110 111 112 114 Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt UunUuuUub Uuq L lquot l l quot L 1 Lquotx lquotl 39 l quot l 39 1 5 51239 quot61quotquot quot8392 39 E39squot quot396739quot quot41quot I ICIVC Cl DIIIIIl IUDLCI LU IL IIIUDLly DIIVCI Good conductorof heat and electricity NonMetallic Elements Normally brittle Poorconductors of electricity Dull luster not shiny Most of these elements are actually gases Metalloids Are in the middle of the two Groups of Elements These are groups that have similar properties to one another Noble gases All gases Unreactive They have 8 electrons Soiltary Atoms Every element wants to be them located on the far right of the table Halogens They want one electron and they form diatomics where they share one electrc another They are very reactive Electronegative One electron short of the a closed electrong shell Alkali Metals Extremely Reactive One electron shortfrom being a closed shell They want to lose a electron and they gain a more positive charge Low electronegativity n with one Alkaline Earth Metals They are reactive but less reactive than alkalir metals Two electrons more than a closed shell Donates electrons to other atoms Forms a 2 ions Low electronegativity Classification of Matter cont Compounds Anything that is not an element Meaning you have two different or more elements it is not pure Pure Substances amp Mixtures Most of the matter we interact with on a daily basis is not pure Homoeeneous Looks a little different and have some different looks to it Heterogeneous looks exactly the same no matter how it is looked at Seoaration of Mixtures Ways ofSeparation Distillation Crystallization Filtration Reaction Chromatography Properties and Changes of Matter thsical Prooerties Can be observed without changing a substanceinto another Boiling Point Denshy Mass This property is when the substance39s features are not changed Like the boiling the volume isn39t change Chemical Prooerties Can only be observed when a substance is changed into another substance Flammability Reactivity with acid Corrosiveness This property is changed when the substances turns into a totally different sub Combustion can change that Intensive Pronerties Doesn39t matter if you have a different amount ofthe substance it could be larg but the temperature will be the same the density will be the same Etc Extensive Prooerties Depends on how much you have it is specific and will be based on what you h volume and mass and etc Unit of Measurement SI Units TABLE 14 0 SI Base Units Physical Quantity Name of Unit Abbreviation h39lalss Kilogram kt g point and 39stance e or small ave as far as V v Length Meter m Time Second 5 or sec Temperature Kelvin K Amount of substance Mole mol Electric current Ampere A or amp Luminous intensity Candela cd ozonerum It You39ll need to know this chart Make flash cards or memorize and get it Metric System TABLE 1 5 Pre xes Used in the Metric System and with SI Units Pre x Abbreviation Meaning Example Peta P Itquot IpctawatttPWI I x I0quotwatts Tera 139 l0 lterawatHTW I X It watts g c to lgigawattKiW I x m watts Mega M Hf lmegawatHMWI I X l0 watts Kilo k 10 lkilowatHkW I x io mus Deci d toquot ldociwatHdW I x IO39watt Icnti c toquot lcentiwatHcW I x I0 wau Milli m I0 lmilliwattmW I X It watt Mk uh oo lmicrowatthI I x Inquot watt Name It I0399 lnanowatHnW l X 10 9 watt Pico p I0 39 lpicowathW I x l0 watt l emto t I0S Itcmtomtttm39 I x I0quot wau Atto a lo quot lattowatHaW I x IO 395 watt Zcpto 2 I0quotquot lzeptowattle I x I0quot quotwau 3911 watt IWI it the SI unit at power whieh iith rate at whie mety is either patented oe unnamed The St unit at amp isthe mkch II I illmixquot and I wI Ia 39I mk letter mu minmed 39mew 0quot O I Derived Units meaning usinga formula to get the answer Density is a physical Property of a substance It has a units of that are derived from the units for mass and volume D MV Other Examples of Devired units mass Densi ty volume moles ofsolute Molarlty llters ofsolvent 39oule second distance 39 Veloci ty time velocit Acceleration 2 y time FOI CE mass Xacceleration force Pressure area Dimesional Analvsis Using dimesional Analysis to convert one quanity to another Basically conversion factoring and getting things to cancelout per means divided by THIS IS HELPFUL desired unit W desired unit W Conversion factor Significant Digits The more the numbers the better the value is known Normally the last digit is considered uncertain In this case either round or take offthat number Rules to significant digits All nonzero digits are significant 0 Example 257g 3 digits 0 All zeroes between other digits are significant 0 Example 709g 3 digits 0 Zeroes at a beginning of a number are never significant they just hold tl Annmnl nl hn 1e ueuma pldLC 0 Example 00032 2 digits 0 Zeroes at the end of numbers after a decimal place are significant 0 Example 450 3 digits 0 Zeroes after a decmial place matters 0 Zeroes at the end of numbers without a decimal place are ambiguous 0 You use scientific notation to avoid this problem


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