Class Note for MIC 205A at UA 2
Class Note for MIC 205A at UA 2
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Specific Defenses to Microbes T Cells and Cellular Immunity Humoral Immunity Humoral immunity is due to antibodies made by B cells neutralization opsonization complement activation ADCC Eliminates extracellular pathogens Works with phagocytes and complement Can be passively transferred Cellular Immunity Cellular immunity is due to T cells Eliminates intracellular pathogens transplanted tissue cancer Kills infected host cells Helps macrophages kill phagocytosed pathogens Difficult to passively transfer 77 cn tcelis 7 l7 7 7 7 7 703 T7ce7lls7 7 peptlde MHC class peptide MHC class II Cytotoxic killer T cells Tm cells TH2 cells TH2 kill activate 7 COD 3 E e O r virusCiglllecled 5 bacterial toxin antigenspectflc Bcell T Cells m antigoltjin ti o y F1 at apoplotic cell dead intracellular bacteria B lymphomaS m w iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii l y Complex Antlgen Qanhgequot lllnthlscaseade contact C39 pl 1h JR 4 7 l x d Dendr Free y x lt5 El Vsoluble 4 U Q S tu ihelpercell antigen w e a l 1 WC l 2 I J 339 a tecepturviyw 39EAMHC g Antigen sr 39 73 matkels X At wg 39 lfa 4 w E k l 2lt e r Y M lulemeu V ostacellsramlire 4 u leceptm 4 m V stlmulatlon llom T cells 27 n x Antigen BEE eeeeeeeee on T h Iper Cell l we T cell it v gitlg WT ft 7 Jr 9g 439 F Actlvatgkd B cell Eb fhf39 yr e w v 3 94 Memory ken 339 mg fol quot5 24 al 9 gt37 31367 Jg AnllglnDIpndlnl Ha panm Helper i cells l39l39Hl ur39iHZI CytotoxlcT cells Tc Cairmedlated Immunity Antigen binding gt activationproliferation gt effector cells memory cells somuglm Tim Mu ldw HtlE Cuttiudluub llx pumasmu mqu tel ruuruduullutl ordlspluy Contrasting Properties of B Cells and T Cells B Cells T Cells OT I a Site of Maturation Ilnnt marrow Thymus Specific Surface lmmunugltxhulin quotlicvll rcctpltlr e r C Markers Several CL Souml Cl IHOlI CIIh S llloll t llll39f I p r C D 8 Circulation Low ntnnlxtn High numbers 6 e O In Blood t t Receptors for lmmunnglnbulin I39rtvll nvccptur O Antigen Distribution in Cortex in follicles l tlmcnrliudl sits Lymphatic it t 39nrtotltc QC T Organs I39u Require Antigen Sometimes Yes b 39 d Presented with MHC Product of Plasma culls and t 39c 39wa M H C I I 0 tll Antigenic muinnry culls Stimulation 39 0C D8 II General Production of Culls function in S Functions Antibodies helping other to inttdivatu immune cells n d a n g e n O n nt39utralit s H 5 turgrtantigens tlwnurmal 0quot h In y 5 Antigen Presenting Cells MHC Molecules ProfeSSIonalAPC l present extracellular J antigen on MHC II Dendritic cells J DC 11111111o111 B Ge 9 lllll lllll gtlllltlllrlll l it All cells can present intracellular antigen on MHC l MHC Proteins TCR MHC proteins tissue typing TCR is not antigens secreted it is always membranebound Class MHC is on all cells except RBC presents antigen to Tc CD8 Class II MHC is on professional TCR diVerSity iS APC presents antigen to Th1 and also gen rated by Th2 cells CD4 gene cuttlng and splicing TCR Antigen Binding Mllc class I molecules blnd lc l MHc class ll molecules blnd lle CD4 Targetoall X An genplasen ngcall TCR are generated randomly in T cells RM developing in the thymus CD4 TCR must bind MHC l or MHC II forthe T cell to survive Because T cells are selected for their ability to bind self MHC foreign MHC transplants trigger T cell rejection Immature T cells binding too tightly to self peptide on self MHC are killed T Cell Development 391 TCR binds MHC antigen peptide CD4 binds MHC II CD8 binds MHCI m Anugenrpvesenllng cell APE r um anilgeri 4 MHC u receptor A J 1 4 Becomes activatedT helper cell 3 r r J Releases interleukan r r 3 The APC and T cell oopevale m the lormairnn ol 3 receptor cam Tm MH 5 AP L2 is a cytokine that signals cells to divide Comrvglilr TheMuGtawrtllll Colwallles lm Penmsmumqurmrm reproduuilorruiursplay Jr f1 0 6 J 71 quotfa Memch cell i g V MHCl New K jquot k 3 6 lt9 r Al we re rrz39 Memory T cell j 7153 infected host 1 n rquot quot 5 lt 5 v quot39 Destroyed l l 2 trust eil r t 639 mca ecuu Au 71 gt Emaiqu quotW quotq 0 V TNF 39 7 4 ll v 39 2 o 6 1 a r r xx Macrophage 1 r39 7 IL also delayed hyperse srllvtly Mncm Ag r as ILJelhms 45 lt W a g m a L 39 gr 7 4 in anal Acxwumc B can T Cell Immunity Tc cytotoxic T cells CTL CD8 recognize and kill virusinfected host cells Th1 cells CD4 signal infected macrophages to kill pathogens in their phagosomes Th2 cells CD4 signal B cells to divide and make antibodies myth a m Mnhww u Cytotoxic T Cell CTL CTL go to the infection site and find and kill virusinfected cells They kill by releasing perforin makes pores in target cell and granzymes cause apoptosis CTL also kill tumor cells Cytotoxicity Target cell dies by apoptosis CTL recognizes and CTL programs target binds virusinfected for death inducing CTL m39gmes m cell DNA fragmentation new target Th1 Cells Activate Macrophages to Kill Pathogens They Have Engulfed TH1 cell Infected macrophage 1 T cell activates macrophage CD40 ligand D40 z IFNy receptor Fig 840 2001 Garland Science Partial removal ol live M tuberculosis Granuloma multi nucleated i I giant cell Fig 843 2001 Garland Science Skin Testing for Th1 Function TB Test Also called DelayedType Hypersensitivity TB test Inject small amount of antigen to form bubble under skin Skin Testing for Th1 Function Macrophages bind antigen send cytokines to attract memory Th1 cells Activated Th1 activate Macrophages 9 inflammation and antigen removal B Cell Activation Antigen signal Th2 signal B cells need T cell help to make lgG and lgA and lgE memory cells Bcell activalion by antigen and helper T cells Antibody secretion by plasma cells Tlndependent Antigens Polysaccharide with repeating epitopes capsules B cells divide and make lgM without Th2 cell help Infants cannot make good Tl response to HiB need vaccine Tmdependenl antigen Vaccination Stimulate with harmless but similar antigen to generate memory cells and an body Vaccine types commonly used in US Whole Cell Live attenuated weakened virus Killed virus SubunitToxoid Recombinant Generate active immunity Whole Cell Vaccines Cowman mew m comm m Wm impmmmw Killed cell or inactivated V39Ef Ags 2Ags Vaccine T i Heator 739 a Administer st39mUIgtes T T 39 a gtimmunity T chemicals a Q butpathogen 3 cannot multiply Dead but r quotquot 639 1 Virulence iiquot Administer Vaccine microbes quotu 3 is eliminated 1 can multiply and 3973 39 or reduced 7 Alive with same antigenicity a Whole Cell Vaccines antigenicity Live attenuated 39S rammed 1 V gt1 cells or viruses r 7 1 MS I I Ags 1 1 boost immune stimulation Live Attenuated Virus Can replicate in host Induces CTL and antibodies Unsafe for immunosuppressed people Examples Sabin polio MMR Chickenpox lnactivated Virus or Bacterium Cannot replicate in host Safe induces neutralizing antibodies Examples Sak polio Rabies Influenza Hepatitis A Virus HAV Pneumococcal vaccine adult Subunit Vaccines 39 Wigxthl llw MLGrtnrlllll mmth llx Mutable mwm luvn plgduchuhmdls iidy Subunit vaccine virus Acellular vaccine bacteria t b Vaccines from Microbe Parts Subunit Vaccines Parts of pathogen Safe generate antibodies Examples Pertussis acellular Haemophius infuenzae B HiB Pneumococcal pneumonia infants Meningococca meningitis Toxoid Vaccines lnactivated toxin molecules Safe generate neutralizing antibodies Examples diphtheria tetanus anthrax Recombinant Vaccine Cuwngiil 0 Tim mew Hill LEVINElulu Adm39ms er Anngenssumulate immunity but no pathogen Is present Synthesis ol surlace antigen Sunaca Ag 3 O J x Plasmid with gene Np that codes tor surlace A 9 Yeast cloning vector Hepatitis B virus 9 Recombinant Vaccine oExamples Hepatitis B Virus HBV HPV oUsually require multiple exposures DNA Vaccine r niu Lumpa cwwmmim UNA m a plasmid x pathogen O i F 7 n c l g r r r 0 Plasma min DNA l n 2 3i DNA matccces Genomic DNA DNA vaccme l r protein antng n nsi i d mm lasmin vector iniecled ima exllacleu 4mm 0135mm l5 ampiiireu and pathogen gcnume Prepared asv V lm sumsgull We tut lemursquot m mu olcin expressed an sunace oi Protein nun cell a 4mm v quot I pathogen Nucieus Cells av sublect accent plasmid Farsign protein of pmnagen is wm palhug n s DNA DNAis inse same menu rm h nd Iranslaled into where vl Will sllmulale immune 5 response None currently used in humans or animals several under development ammo m Mneuw niicumm u Panmssmi aquith tor mpmducliunmmsplay Recommended Adult Immunization Szhedule United State 200371004 l949 Vears 50454 Van 55 Years and Older vaccine v I dine hmwa every in years39 I dare annually I dose nrnrr For all permm For permquot wlth Inedknl A expnxure lndlaunns zkhnp on In an gmup rnridnaod vamnananr
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