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Abnormal Psych Notes Weeks 1-4

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by: Jenna Janssen

Abnormal Psych Notes Weeks 1-4 2500

Marketplace > University of Denver > Psychlogy > 2500 > Abnormal Psych Notes Weeks 1 4
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These notes cover the first and second exam.
Abnormal Psychology
Dr. Jennifer Joy
Class Notes
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"Can you just teach this course please? lol :)"
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This 38 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Janssen on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2500 at University of Denver taught by Dr. Jennifer Joy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Denver.

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Date Created: 01/28/16
Abnormal Psychology Dr. Joy ▯  Abnormal Psych ~ Chapter 1 ▯  What is abnormal? o The scientific study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe,  predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning.  What is psychological abnormality? o Most definitions have certain features in common:  The four d’s  Deviance  Behaviors, thoughts, and emotions that differ  markedly from a society’s ideas about proper  functioning/ social norms  Distress  Behaviors, ideas, or emotions usually have to  cause distress before they can be labeled  abnormal  Dysfunction  Abnormal behavior tends to be dysfunctional –  it interferes with daily functioning  Danger  Abnormal behavior may become dangerous to  oneself or others o Behavior may be consistently careless,  hostile, or confused  What is treatment? o Treatment or therapy, is a procedure designed to change o According to Jerome Frank, all forms of therapy have 3 essential  features:  1. Sufferer seeks healer Abnormal Psychology Dr. Joy  2. A trained, socially accepted healer is chosen  3. A series of contacts between the healer and the sufferer  change “abnormal” function to “normal” functioning o Each year 30% of adults and 19% of children an adolescents in the US  display serious psychological disturbances and are in need of clinical  treatment  In addition, most people have difficulty coping at different times o Ancient views and treatments  The work of evil spirits  Stone age  Treatments: trephination and exorcism  Greek and Roman views and Treatments  500BC to 500AD  Hippocrates believed and taught that illness had  natural causes   Unbalance of the four fluids, or humors o Treatment: rebalance, bloodletting,  warm baths  Europe in the Middle Ages: Demonology Returns  500­1350AD  The church rejected scientific forms of investigation  Demonology reemerges  The renaissance and the rise of Asylums  1400­1700  Demonological views decline  The mind was as susceptible to sickness as the  body/care improves through humane and loving  treatment of people with mental disorders Abnormal Psychology Dr. Joy o Unfortunately, this time also saw a rise  of asylums (institutions) th  The 19  century: reform and moral treatment  As 1800 approached, the treatment of people with  mental disorders began to improve once again  Care that emphasized moral guidance and  humane and respectful techniques.  19  Century  By the end of the 19  century, the moral treatment  movement started to reverse th  By the early years of the 20  century long­term  hospitalization became the rule once again   Early 20  century: Dual perspectives  Late 1800s, two opposing perspectives emerged:  The Somatogenic perspective o Abnormal functioning has physical cases  Biological approaches yielded  mostly disappointing results  throughout the first half of the  20  century  In the 1950s, a number of  effective medications were  finally discovered.   The Psychogenic perspective o Abnormal functioning has psychological causes  Hypnotism:  Freud/outpatient therapy  Psychoanalytic theory  and treatment  Current trends  43% of people surveyed believe that people bring  mental health disorders upon themselves and 35%  consider mental health disorders to be caused by sinful  behavior.  How are people with severe disturbances cared for? Abnormal Psychology Dr. Joy o In the 1950s, researchers discovered a number of new psychotropic  medications:  Antipsychotic drugs; antidepressant drugs; antianxiety drugs o Led to deinstitutionalization and a rise in outpatient care  Outpatient care has now become the primary mode of treatment o Nearly 1 in 6 adults in the US receives treatment for psychological  disorders in the course of a year, the majority for fewer then 5 sessions o Development of programs devoted exclusively to one kind of  psychological problem.   A growing emphasis on preventing disorders and promoting mental health o The community mental health approach has given rise to the  prevention movement  Many of todays programs are trying to:  Correct the social conditions that underlie  psychological problems  Help individuals at risk for developing disorders  Energized by the positive psychology movement  What are todays leading theories and professions? o Theoretical perspectives:  Psychoanalytic  Biological  Behavioral  Cognitive  Humanistic­existential  Sociocultural  Research in Abnormal Psych Abnormal Psychology Dr. Joy o The systematic search for facts through the use of careful observations  and investigations  Clinical researchers must consider different cultural  backgrounds, races, and genders of the people they study  They must always ensure that the rights of their research  participants, both human and animal, are not violated.   What is a case study? o Provides a detailed, interpretive description of a person’s life and  psychological problems  What is a correlation? o Correlation is the degree to which events or characteristics vary with  each other.  o Examples of correlational questions in clinical research  Are stress and onset of mental disorders related?  Are family conflict and mental disorders related? o Correlational Data  Positive, negative, unrelated (no slope) the magnitude (strength) of a correlation is also important  Hi magnitude, low magnitude o What ate the merits for the correlational method  Advantages  Can generalize findings  Can repeat (replicate) studies on other samples  Difficulties with correlational studies:  Results describe but do not explain a   Relationship, one does not cause the other  Experimental methods Abnormal Psychology Dr. Joy o A variable is manipulated and the manipulation’s effect on another o Three things that are part of an experiment to guard against confounds:  A control group  A group of research participants who are not exposed to the treatment  Random assignment  Equal possibility of being placed in either group  Blind design  Participants don’t know if they are in control or  experiment  Double blind  The person doing the experiment doesn’t know  which group the participant is in.  o Quasi­experimental  Use groups that already exist o Natural Experiment  Nature manipulates the independent variable and the  experimenter observes the effects o Analogue Experiments  Allow investigators to manipulate independent variables while  avoiding ethical and practical limitations o Single­subject experiment  A single participant is observed both before and after  manipulation of an independent variable Abnormal Psychology Dr. Joy ▯ Abnormal Psych ~ Chapter 3 ▯ ▯ Models of Abnormality  Paradigms influence… o What investigators observe, o The questions they ask, o The information they seek, o And how they interpret this information  The Biological Model o Medical perspective o Psychological abnormality is an illness o Includes:  Brain anatomy: problems in specific brain areas Abnormal Psychology Dr. Joy  Brain chemistry: endocrine system  Genetic abnormality  Evolution  Viral infections o Biological treatments  Three types of biological treatment:  Drug therapy  Electroconvulsive therapy (ETC)  Psychosurgery (or neurosurgery) o Assessing the Biological model  Strengths  Valuable new information  Treatments bring great relief  Weaknesses  Can limit our understanding  Treatments produce significant undesirable (negative)  effects.   The Psychodynamic Model o Behavior is determined largely by underlying psychological forces of  which he or she is not consciously aware.  o Assessing the Psychodynamic Model  Strengths  First to apply theory and techniques systematically to  treatment­ monumental impact on the field Abnormal Psychology Dr. Joy  Weaknesses  Unsupported ideas; difficult to research  The Behavioral Model o Several forms of conditioning  Operant conditioning  Modeling  Classical conditioning o Assessing the Behavioral Model  Strengths  Can be tested in the lab  Significant research support for behavioral therapies  Weaknesses  Too simplistic  The Cognitive Model o Cognitive processes­ the center of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions  Faulty assumptions, illogical thinking o Assessing the Cognitive Model  Strengths  Focuses on a uniquely human process  Therapies effective in treating several disorders  Weaknesses Abnormal Psychology Dr. Joy  Precise role of cognition in abnormality has yet to be  determined  The Humanistic­Existential Model o The humanist view   Focus on drive to self­actualize through honest recognition of  strengths and weaknesses o The existentialist view  Emphasis on choice and individual responsibility; meaning o Assessing The Humanistic­Existential Model  Strengths  Taps into domains missing from other theories  Optimistic  Emphasizes health  Weaknesses  Focuses on abstract issues  Difficult to research  The Sociocultural Models o Social and cultural forces that influence an individual  Norms and roles in society o Compromised of two major perspectives:  Family­social perspective  Multicultural perspective o Family­social treatments Abnormal Psychology Dr. Joy  Includes:  Group therapy  Family therapy  Couple therapy  Community treatment  Includes prevention  o How do the multicultural theorists explain abnormal functioning  Unique cultural context  Evaluates prejudice and discrimination faced by many minority groups.  o Assessing the Sociocultural Models  Strengths  Awareness of culture and social roles  Successful when other treatments have failed  Weaknesses  Research is difficult to interpret  Correlation doesn’t = causation  Integration of the Models o Integrative therapists are often called “eclectic”­ taking the strength  from each model and using them in combination Example: bio­psychosocial theorists favor a diathesis­stress approach. Abnormal Psychology 01/28/2016 ▯ Abnormal Psych ~ Chapter 4 ▯ Clinical Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment  Clinical assessment: How and Why Does the client behave abnormally? o Clinical assessment is used to determine how and why a person is behaving  abnormally and how that person may be helped.  o The specific tools used in an assessment depend on the clinician’s theoretical  orientation o Hundreds of clinical assessment tools have been developed and fall into three  categories:  Clinical interviews  Tests  Observations  Clinical interviews o Face­to­face o Often are the first contact between a client and a clinician/ assessor o Can be either unstructured or structured  Clinical Tests o Tests are devices for gathering information about a few aspects of a person’s  psychological functioning, from which broader information can be inferred o More than 500 clinical tests are currently in use  They fall into six categories  1. Projective tests  Require that clients interpret vague and ambiguous  stimuli or follow open­ended instruction  Mainly used by psychodynamic practitioners Abnormal Psychology Dr. Joy  Most popular o Rorschach test o Thematic apperception test o Sentence completion tests o Drawings  Strengths and weaknesses o Helpful for providing “supplementary”  information o Have rarely demonstrated much reliability or  validity o May be biased against minority ethnic groups  2. Personality inventories  Designed to measure broad personality characteristics  Usually self­reported  Most widely used: Minnesota multiphasic personality  inventory   Strengths and weaknesses o Easier, cheaper, and faster to administer than  projective tests o Objectively scored and standardized o Tests fail to allow for cultural differences in  responses.   3. Response inventories  Usually based on self­reported responses  Focus on one specific area of functioning o Affective inventories Abnormal Psychology Dr. Joy o Social skills inventories o Cognitive inventories  Strengths and weaknesses o Have strong face validity o Not all have been subjected to careful  standardization, reliability, and/or validity  procedures   4. Psychophysiological tests  Measure physiological response as an indication of  psychological problems.   Weaknesses o Require expensive equipment that must be tuned and maintained o Can be inaccurate and unreliable o Intelligence Tests  6. Intelligence Tests  Designed to indirectly measure intellectual ability  Typically compromised by a series   Strengths o Highly standardized on large groups of subjects o Have very high reliability and validity  Weaknesses o Performance can be influenced by non  intelligence factors  (motivation, anxiety) o Tests may contain cultural biases in language or  tasks  Clinical observations o Systematic observations of behavior o Several kinds  Naturalistic: occur in everyday environments  Analog­ are used and conducted in artificial settings  Self­monitoring­ people observe themselves and carefully record the   Does the client’s syndrome match a known diagnosis? o Using all available information, clinicians attempt to paint a “clinical picture”  Influenced by their theoretical   Abnormal Psychology ▯ Abnormal Psych ~ Chapter 5 Abnormal Psychology ▯ What distinguishes fear from anxiety?  Fear is an immediate response to a specific stimuli   Anxiety is the lingering apprehension, or a chronic sense of worry or tension,  the sources of which may be totally unclear ▯ How can experiences fear and/ or be useful? ▯ Anxiety  Anxiety Disorders o Most common mental disorders in the us o Five disorders  Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)  Excessive anxiety under most circumstances and worry  about practically anything  Symptoms include: feeling restless, keyed up, or on  edge; fatigue; difficulty concentrating; muscle tension;  and/or sleep problems  GAD: the sociocultural Perspective  Most likely to develop in people faced with  social conditions that are truly dangerous  GAD: the Psychodynamic Perspective  Some children experience particularly high  levels of anxiety, or their defense mechanisms  are particularly inadequate, and they may  develop GAD  GAD: the Humanistic Perspective  Propose that GAD, like other psychological  disorders, arises when people stop looking at  themselves honestly and acceptingly.  GAD: the Cognitive Perspective  GAD is caused by maladaptive assumptions  GAD: the Biological Perspective Abnormal Psychology  GABA inactivity: Benzodiazepines (Valium,  Xanax) found to reduce anxiety o Probably more complicated than a single neurotransmitter  Phobias  Persistent and unreasonable fears of particular objects,  activities, or situations  We all have our areas of special fear; this is a normal  and common experience  How do such common fears differ from  phobias?  Most phobias technically are categorized as “specific”  Also 2 broader kinds: o Agoraphobia o Social anxiety disorder  Specific Phobias  Persistent fears of specific objects or situations  When exposed to the object or situation,  sufferers experienced immediate fear  Most common: phobias of specific animals or  insects, heights, enclosed spaces, thunderstorms, and blood  What causes specific phobias?  The behavioral model: o Phobias develop through conditioning o Once fears are acquired, the individuals  avoid the dreaded object or situation,  permitting the fears to become all the  more entrenched.   How are specific phobias treated?  Behavioral techniques are most widely used  desensitization, flooding, and modeling­  together called “exposure treatments”  Agoraphobia Abnormal Psychology  Afraid of being in situations where escape might be  difficult, should they experience panic or become  incapacitated  Social anxiety disorder  Severe, persistent, and irrational fears of social or  performance situations in which scrutiny by others and  embarrassment may occur.   Panic disorders  Panic, an extreme anxiety reaction, can result when a  real threat suddenly emerges  “Panic attacks” are part of panic disorder, but not  everyone who experiences panic attacks has panic  disorder  Panic disorder often (but not always) accompanied by  agoraphobia  Panic Disorder: the Biological Perspective  Norepinephrine  Brain circuits and the amygdala  Drug therapies o Antidepressants o Benzodiazepines (especially Xanax)  Panic Disorder: the Cognitive Perspective  People misinterpret bodily events  Cognitive therapy o Tries to correct people’s  misinterpretations of their bodily  sensations  Step 1: educate  Step 2: teach accurate  interpretations  Step 3: teach coping skills ▯ Obsessive­Compulsive Disorder Abnormal Psychology  Made up of 2 components o Obsessions  Persistent thoughts, ideas, impulses, or images that seem to  invade a person’s consciousness o Compulsions  Repetitive and rigid behaviors or mental acts that people feel  they must preform to prevent or reduce anxiety  Obsessive­Compulsive Disorder o Was once among the least understood of the psychological disorders o The most influential explanations are from the psychodynamic,  behavioral, cognitive, and biological models.   OCD o The psychodynamic Perspective: children fear their id impulses and  use ego defense mechanisms o The Behavioral Perspective: concentrated on treating compulsions o The cognitive Perspective: pointing out that everyone has repetitive,  unwanted, and intrusive thoughts.  o OCD: the cognitive Perspective:  According to this model, people with OCD are more likely  than other people to:  Have some history of depression  Have exceptionally high standards  Believe their thoughts can bring harm  Believe that they should have full control over their  thoughts.  o OCD: Treatment  Cognitive­Behavioral therapy  Combination of the cognitive and behavioral models­ more effective than either intervention alone Abnormal Psychology  Psychoeducation  Exposure and response prevention exercises o OCD: The Biological Perspective  53% concordance rate in identical twins, versus 23% in  fraternal twins  Abnormal serotonin activity  Abnormal brain structure and functioning  Orbitofrontal cortex and caudate nuclei / too active  Biological therapies  Serotonin­based antidepressants  Research suggests that combination therapy  (medications/  Obsessive­Compulsive­Related Disorders o DSM­5 has created the group name “Obsessive­Compulsive­Related  Disorders” and assigned four patterns to that group: hoarding, hair  pulling disorder, excoriation (skin­picking), and body dimorphic  disorder Abnormal Psychology  Dr. Joy ▯ Abnormal Psych ~ Chapter 7 ▯ Mood Disorders ▯ Two key emotions  Depression o Low, sad state in which life seems dark and its challenges overwhelming o Depression ­> Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)  Mania o State of breathlessness euphoria or frenzied energy o Mania ­> Bipolar Depression  Cycles of mood disorders o MDD: goes low, stays low, rises, but then is low o Bipolar: goes high, then low, then high, then low, over many weeks ▯ Unipolar depression  Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability in the US for ages 15­44 o Around 8% of adults suffer each year o Lifetime prevalence rates ~19%  Gender difference o Women are twice as likely to experience MDD than men o No gender difference in childhood  Highly co­morbid o If you have one, you probably have the other o Generalized Anxiety disorder o Other medical disorders  4x more likely to experience heart attack  Cancer   Parkinson’s disease  Eating disorders  Substance uses  Symptoms o What may be some symptoms and criteria for depression?  Loss of interest  Irregular sleep (Hypersomnia and Insomnia)  Eating patterns  Change in weight  Loss of motivation  Self­harm  Feelings of loathing  Wanting to be alone o How would you assess it?  Clinical interviews  Therapy  Surveys  Diaries o Functional Symptoms  Emotional symptoms  Feeling miserable, empty, humiliates  Experiencing little pleasure  Motivational Symptoms  Lacking drive  Behavioral Symptoms   Cognitive Symptoms   Physical Symptoms  Abnormal appetite  Abnormal sleep  Fatigue or loss of energy  Agitation or slowing o Unipolar Depression­ Symptoms (DSM)  5+ symptoms, at least one of which is 1 or 2  1. Depressed mood  2. Apathy and/or anhedonia  3. Significant weight change  4. Insomnia or hypersomnia  5. Psychomotor agitation or retardation  6. Fatigue  7. Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt  8. Trouble concentrating or indecisiveness  9. Suicidal ideation or attempt  Diagnosing Unipolar Disorder o DSM­5 lists several types of depressive disorders:  Major depressive disorder  Dysthymic Disorder changes to Persistent Depressive Disorder  Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder  Disruptive Mood regulation Disorder  What causes Unipolar Depression? o Stress o Biological Factors  Genetic factors  High degrees of heritability (twin & adoption studies)  Neurotransmitters– SSRI’s  Molecular Biology– 5­HTTLPR o Psychological Factors  Three main models  Psychodynamic view  No strong research  Strengths o Link between depression and grief o Early loss= greater risk for depression o Lack of need in childhood= greater risk  Weaknesses o Inconsistent research o Sometimes impossible to test: what is an id?  Behavioral View  Strengths o Support from research  Weaknesses o Largely self reported o Typically correlational and doesn’t assess the  actual number  Cognitive view  Two main theories o Negative thinking  Cognitive triad  Negative views about: self,  world, future  Cognitive errors  Unrealistic bad thoughts about  the event  Strengths  Strong empirical support  Limitations  Research fails to show that such  cognitive patterns are the cause  of unipolar depression o Learned helplessness  Strengths  There has been significant  research support for this model  Limitations  Laboratory helplessness does not  parallel depression  Much of the research has been  dome on animals o Sociocultural Factors  Family­social perspective  The connection between declining social rewards and  depression is a two way street  Marital stress  Separated or divorced= higher rates of depression  The multicultural perspective  The relationship between gender and depression has become  particularly interesting  A variety if theories has been offered o Artifact theory o Hormone explanation o Life stress theory o Body dissatisfaction theory o Lack of control theory o Rumination theory  Relationship between cultural background and depression  Non­western countries experience greater physical  symptoms than cognitive  Within US, differences have been found  Living in oppressive situations ▯ Bipolar Depression  Symptoms and Criteria for Bipolar Depression o Assessing for Bipolar Depression o Five main areas of functioning may be affected:  Emotional symptoms  Motivational Symptoms  Behavioral Symptoms  Cognitive Symptoms  Physical Symptoms o Symptoms of Mania  Abnormally, persistently elevated or irritable mood lasting at least one  week  Three or more of the following  Grandiosity  Decreased need for help  Pressured speech  Flight of ideas  Distractibility  Increased goal­directed activity/ psychomotor agitation  Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities  DSM­5 distinguishes two kinds of bipolar disorder o Bipolar I  Full manic and major depressive episodes  Most experience an alternation of episodes  Some have mixed episodes o Bipolar II  Hypomanic episodes alternate with major depressive episodes  Diagnosing Bipolar Disorders o Between 1 and 2.6% of all adults in the world suffer from a bipolar disorder at any given time, and as many as 4% over the course of their lives o The disorders are equally common in women and men o The disorders can manifest from 15­44 years  Causes of Bipolar Disorders o Neurotransmitters  Permissive theory  Low norepinephrine in depression. High in mania  Low serotonin in depression… doesn’t equal high in mania  Mania= low serotonin + high norepinephrine o Ion activity  Ions, which are needed to send incoming messages to nerve endings,  may be improperly transported through the cells of individuals with  bipolar disorder o Brain structure o Genetic Factors  Abnormal Psych ~ Chapter 8  Treatments for Mood Disorder       Mindfulness Approach  Is Being o Present o Nonjudgmental  The research o Decreased depression in firefighters experiencing PTSD o Long­term improvement in depressive symptoms in adults who experienced  abuse as children o Decreased symptoms of depression and PTSD in veterans.        Treatments for Unipolar Depression  Traditional Approaches o Around half of persons with unipolar depression receive treatment from a  mental health professional every year o Many other people seek support for depressed feelings  Psychological Approaches o Psychodynamic­ Widely used, research support not strong  Psychodynamic therapy  Free association  Therapist interpretation  Review of past events and feelings  Why might these approaches be quite limited when used with people  suffering with depression? o Behavioral­ Primarily used for mild or moderate depression but practiced less  than in the past  Behavioral Therapy  Reintroduce pleasurable activities  Improve social skills  Behavioral treatments are best for mild forms  Behavioral techniques most effective when paired with  cognitive strategies o Cognitive­ Has preformed so well in research that it has a large and growing  clinical following   Cognitive Therapy  Includes a number of behavioral techniques  Help clients recognize and change their negative cognitive  process  Phases  Increased activities and elevating mood  Challenging automatic thoughts  Identifying negative thinking and biases  Changing Primary attitudes  Sociocultural Approaches o Family­Social treatments  Interpersonal therapy (IPT)  Interpersonal loss  Grief  Interpersonal role dispute  Couples or family based therapy  What people need from others  Love language survey o Five different ways that we feel loved  Interpersonal role transition  Transitions  How major changes in life can affect our roles and us.   Interpersonal deficits  Social skills  Studies suggest that IPT has a success rate similar to cognitive and  cognitive­behavior therapies for treating depression  Biological Approaches o Medicine or Medical Care  Bring great relief  Antidepressant drugs (MAO inhibitors or Tricyclic’s)  Tricyclic’s are believed to reduce depression by affecting  neurotransmitter (NT) reuptake mechanisms  Sometimes includes electroconvulsive therapy or brain stimulation  Second­generation antidepressants  Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s)  Fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), and  escitalopram (Lexapro)  Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and  serotonin­norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are also  now available   Cognitive, cognitive­behavioral, interpersonal, and biological therapies are all highly  effective treatments for mild to severe unipolar depression  Psychodynamic therapies = less effective than other therapies in treating all levels of  unipolar depression  Psychotherapy + drug therapy is modestly more helpful than either treatment alone.   Treatments for Bipolar Disorder  Recall the emotional roller coaster included depression and mania o Low serotonin + low norepinephrine = depression o Low serotonin + high norepinephrine = mania  Treatment Medications­ Lithium and Other Mood stabilizers o Lithium and Other Mood stabilizers o Lithium­ side effects/ kidney, thyroid, dehydration  Need to find right amount o Researchers do not fully understand how mood­stabilizing drugs operate.   Treatment o Mood stabilizing drugs alone are not always sufficient o 30% or more of patients don’t respond, may not receive the correct dose,  and/or may relapse while taking it o Therapy focuses on medication management, social skills, and relationship  issue ▯ Abnormal Psych~ Sleep ▯ Biorhythms  Circadian: o Around a day, 24­hours (eg. Sleep­cycle)  Ultradian: o Less than a da, cycles that occur within a day (eg. temperature fluctuations,  sleep stages)  Infradian o More than a day (eg. Menstruation cycle) ▯ Circadian System: the master clock  Superchiasmatic Nucleus (SCN) o Controls circadian rhythms o Genetic feedback loop  Entrainment o Via zeitgebers:  Light  Non­light: activities, social cues, temperature, ect.   Chronotype o Phase preference  Temporal Orchestra o Clocks in every cell in the body  Clock genes in SCN respond to light  Clock genes in muscle, liver, lungs resynchronize at own rates o De­synchronization  SCN and external time  Uncoordinated internal clocks  Sleep/Wake Cycle o Circadian Clock (PROCESS C)  SCN interaction with light o Homeostatic Process (PROCESS S)  Prior sleep and wakefulness  Social Jetlag o When you sleep in on the weekends, and wake early on the weekdays  Sleep Stages o Last about 90­110 minutes  Stage 1  Light sleep, Easily awoken  Feeling of falling, jerking awake  Stage 2  No eye movement  Brain waves slow  Stage 3  Slow brain waves  Deep sleep  Stage 4  Delta waves­ rally slow brain waves  Deep sleep  REM  Rapid Eye Movement Sleep  Change in Breathing Patterns; eyes jerk rapidly  Limbs sometimes become temporarily paralyzed  Dreams  Amount of Sleep o Newborns: 0­3 months  14­17 hours o Infants: 4­11 months  12­15 hours o Toddlers: 1­2 years  11­14 hours o Preschoolers: 3­5 years  10­13 hours o School age children: 6­13 years  9­11 hours o Teenagers: 14­17 years  14­17 hours o Younger adults: 18­25 years  7­9 hours o Adults: 26­64 years  7­9 hours o Older adults: 65+ years  7­8 hours  Sleep Deprivation o Problems with:  Emotional Regulation  Cognition  Overall Health  Insomnia o Initial Insomnia  Having trouble falling asleep o Middle Insomnia  Waking in the middle of the night o Terminal Insomnia  Waking up early and not being able to fall back asleep o Hypersomnia  Sleeping more than normal  Measuring Sleep o Sleep diary o Self­report o Actigraphy  Fit bit report o Polysomnography  EEG connected to the head and then measured  Sleep Treatment o Takes a Cognitive­Biological Treatment Approach  Illogical thinking  Conduct Behavioral Experiment  Experimental Manipulations  Observational Studies o Sleep Hygiene  Habits and practices that contribute to productive sleep  Concern for caffeine  Exercise timing  Exposure to light  Avoid napping  Bed=Sleep  Regular routine o Worries/Thoughts  Assessing why you feel this way, to get over it  Behavioral Experiment  Identify belief/thought/process  Brainstorm  Predictions  Anticipate problems  Conduct the experiment  Review and draw conclusions  ▯ Abnormal Psych~ Chapter 9 ▯ Suicide  Every year, approx. 1 million people commit suicide worldwide  Untreated depression is #1 risk for suicide in youth  Differences in suicide o Racial  Whites are twice as likely than blacks o Gender  Women make more attempts  Men more likely to complete suicide o Age  Suicide rates increase with age  Especially for men o Other groups  Rich  Nonreligious  Single  Homosexual


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