Abnormal Psychology Notes for Week 2
Abnormal Psychology Notes for Week 2 PSYC 3560
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3560 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Fix in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
Reviews for Abnormal Psychology Notes for Week 2
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/28/16
Clinical Assessment and Research 1/26/16 Clinical Assessments • Clinical assessment: procedure by which clinicians, using psychological tests, observations and interviews, develop a summary of the client’s symptoms and problems o Clinicians act as puzzle/problem solvers • Basic Issues o Results from one assessment instrument alone should not be used to make a diagnosis § Information should be integrated from a variety of sources o Assessments should include: § Social and Behavioral Histories (academic, environment and social context, family history) § Assessment Instruments (e.g., neurological, psychological, etc.) o Assessment instruments should be psychometrically sound § Reliability: degree to which the instrument produces the same result each time it is used § Validity: extent to which an instrument actually measures what it is supposed to measure § Reliability is necessary for validity § Reliability is not sufficient for validity o Other Testing Influences? § Family, School, Community § Anything on the line/at stake? (forensic, neuropsychological) § Rapport § Clinician characteristics § Clinician biases o Culturally Sensitive Assessment Procedures § Multicultural assessment § Cultural Competence • Language, values, customs • Adaptations for culturally diverse clients § Elements of a culturally fair test • Items are not reliant on cultural information that is exclusive to a particular group • Based more on “innate” ability (ability that’s inherent or biologically/genetically embedded in an individual) Types of Assessments • Physical and neurological o Physical exams: RULE OUT induced psychopathology o Neurological § Electroencephalogram (EEG) § Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): assessments of the functional aspects of the brain • Neuropsychological o Assessment instruments designed to measure a person’s cognitive (e.g., memory, problem-solving), perceptual, and motor performance o Often used as clues to the extent and location of brain damage o Commonly used to test for dementia, Alzheimer’s, and problems from traumatic brain injuries • Psychosocial o Attempts to provide a realistic picture of an individual in interactions with his/her social environment o Often includes assessment of: personality, stressors, level of functioning, resources, symptoms/signs o Assessment methods: interviews, clinical observation, psychological tests • Forensic o Done in legal settings o Often involve risk assessments o May test for malingering • Psychological Assessment Methods o Interviews § Structured: very standardized, has been assessed for reliability/validity, BUT you can’t deviate from it at all § Can also have structured or semi-structured § Structured Diagnostic Interviews: SCID, MINI o Clinical Observation § Role Playing (e.g., what does it look like when you’re fighting someone?) § Self-Monitoring § Rating Scales o Modern psychological tests tend to have… § Standardized procedures and scoring § Empirically developed § More precise and reliable than interviews § Examples: IQ, personality • Psychological Tests o Intelligence Tests § Provides estimates of overall intellectual capability § WISC-IV and WAIS-IV most commonly administered (includes verbal and nonverbal reasoning skills) § 2-3 hours to administer § Used primarily to help identify developmental disabilities such as intellectual disability, pervasive developmental disorders (e.g., autism), being gifted, and learning disorders • Projective Personality Tests o Major assumption- attempts to make sense of ambiguous stimuli o Present ambiguous stimuli or vague pictures § Participant responses are believed to reflect personality characteristics o Examples § Rorschach Inkblot • Training in the scoring and interpretation of responses using the Exner’s system can take YEARS § Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) § Sentence Completion Test o Not very evidence based • Objective Personality Tests o (Typically) Structured § Questionnaires, self-report, rating scales o Empirically derived, and often standardized § Psychometrically sound (reliable and valid) o Examples of objective measures § Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory § NEO-PI: measure of 5 personality constructs § Symptom inventories- e.g., Beck Depression Inventory Research Methods- Terminology • Epidemiology: the study of the distribution of diseases, disorders, or health- related behaviors in a given population • Prevalence: number of active cases in population at any given period of time o 1-year prevalence: lifetime prevalence o Prevalence of ANY below mental disorder § Lifetime prevalence (46.4%) o Most prevalent groups of disorders: anxiety disorders, mood disorders, substance use disorders o Most prevalent disorders: major depressive disorder, alcohol abuse, specific phobia, social phobia • Incidence: number of new cases that occur over a given period of time (typically 1 year) • Comorbidity: the presence of two or more disorders in the same person o A person with one serious disorder has a 50% chance of having two or more additional disorders o Adds a lot of complexity to understanding abnormal behavior o Presents a major challenge to researchers Anxiety Disorders 1/28/16 Fear and Anxiety • Fear o Basic emotion (shared by all animals) o Involves activation of the “fight or flight” response of the autonomic nervous system o Cognitive/Subjective § “Oh shit” is pretty much all you can think about o Physiological § Heart rate increases § Fight or flight response o Behavioral § Anything possible to survive what’s happening o Panic attack: fear response in the absence of actual threats • Anxiety o Complex blend of unpleasant emotions and cognitions o Is more oriented to the future and more diffuse than fear o Cognitive/Subjective § Is everything going to be ok? Etc. o Physiological § Sweat increase § Nausea § Butterflies o Behavioral- biggest difference between fear and anxiety § Might avoid things they wouldn’t normally avoid o Anxiety can be adaptive- problem occurs when it is excessive o Not in the moment, just thinking something might happen What makes it an anxiety disorder? • Out of proportion to dangers truly faced • Severe enough to cause distress and/or impairment • Fear response exists even when stimulus is not present Specific Phobias • Phobia: characterized by a strong and persistent fear triggered by the presence of a specific object or situation plus avoidance of that object or situation o Core fear: object/situation • Categories o Animal phobias o Natural environment phobias o Blood, Injection, Injury phobias- most inherited phobia o Situational phobias o Other phobias • Most common types of anxiety disorders (about 1 in every 10 people) o Gender ratio (varies) § Typically, more females have a blood-injection-injury phobia than men § Most animal-type cases are women o Comorbidity (75% have at least one other specific fear) o Age of onset (varies) § Animal and blood-injection types = early childhood § Others = adolescence or early adulthood • Causal Factors o Psychological § Behaviorism/Learning • Classical conditioning • Observational learning • Individual differences in life experience § Evolutionary preparedness- there are some things we can develop phobias to easier than others (animals- spiders, snakes) • If something can kill us, we are more likely to develop a phobia for it • Treatment o Exposure Therapy (behavioral technique) § Cognitive restructuring during/after exposure o Exposure to feared stimulus is not harmful o Sometimes flooding can be used (one prolonged session) o Medications- not very effect because it can interfere with exposure Social Anxiety Disorder • Characterized by disabling fears of one or more specific social situations o Core fear: negative evaluation o Performance only subtype- giving speeches, performing on stage, etc. • Lifetime Prevalence is about 12% • Gender ratio o 3:1 to 2:1 (female to male) • Comorbidity o 50% another axiety disorder in lifetime o About 50% major depression o About 33% abuse alcohol o Higher unemployment, lower SES • Age of onset o Typically mid to late adolescence – early adulthood • Causal Factors o Psychological § Behavioral- direct and observational learning • Social trauma § Cognitive biases • Uncontrollable, unpredictable • Misperceive ambiguous stimuli (neutral faces)- an individual might think that someone with a neutral face really doesn’t like them and something is wrong that individual • Treatment o Exposure therapy § Cognitive restructuring • Identify automatic thoughts (e.g., I’m going to look like an idiot) • Examine evidence for and against such a thought • Reframe thought to be less biased/more accurate o Medication § Antidepressants- SSRIs (e.g., Paxil) • Fairly effective, but not long-term
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'