History of Landscape Architecture, Week One Notes
History of Landscape Architecture, Week One Notes LARCH 1160
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tyler Walker on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LARCH 1160 at Clemson University taught by Dr.Hala Nassar in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see History of Landscape Architcture in Landscape Architecture at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
History of Landscape Architecture What is Landscape Architecture? -the art of the science of arranging land, together with the spaces and objects upon it for safe, efficient, healthy, and pleasant human use -integrates knowledge from different disciplines -ex. Architecture, Horticulture, Civil engineering, etc. -seeks to restore balance between the natural and built environments Why do we study the History of Landscape Arch? 1. It is difficult to create new art without looking at past experiences and occurrences 2. History constitutes a rich source of design vocabulary 3. To learn how different civilizations impacted and shaped the landscape Chapter 1: Origins -Creation of life -the earth is about 4,700 million years old -Pre-Historic Ages 1. Paleolithic………………..500,000 BC-8,000 BC 2. Neolithic…………………..8,000 BC- 4,000 BC 3. Bronze………………………4,000 BC- 2,000 BC 4. Post-Prehistoric……....2000 BC onwards 1. Paleolithic Age (Ice Age) [500,000 BC-8,000 BC] -despite the glacial ages, humans multiplied -humans developed hunting skills and protection against the elements -humans migrated in search of food and spread to the greater part of the globe, populating Africa and Asia -life of Paleolithic humans was recorded in cave art in France and Spain -due to limited technology, human shaping of the land was minimal -The Hadza People -an African tribe in Tanzania that still lives today as hunter gatherers **the most important contribution of humans from this time was their survival and multiplication ID SLIDES CAVE ART: Lascaux, France The Hazda People 2. Neolithic Age (Stone Age) [8,000 BC- 4,000 BC] -evolution from hunting and gathering to agriculture -migration to settlement -humans cleared forests and domesticated animals using flint tools -first settlements were at fertile rivers -Neolithic farm culture started in Mesopotamia and spread to the Mediterranean -Gosseck Hinge, Eastern Germany -7000 year old hinge excavated in 2002 -solar observatory -entrances aligned with winter and summer solstices ID SLIDES Gosseck Henge 3. Bronze Age (Metal Age) [4,000 BC- 2,000 BC] -Discovery of Metal enriched and encouraged the arts of war and peace -monuments that date to the Bronze age… -Carnac in Brittany, France (2500 BC) -multiple parallel lines of stones, believed to have religious significance but true purpose is unknown -Stonehenge in England (2000 BC) - Circle of large stones ID SLIDES Carnac, Britanny Stonehenge, England 4. From 2000 BC Onward -more human impact on the natural environment caused by advancements in technology and growth of societies -change from natural scenes to man made -great civilizations developed -Persia, Greece, Ancient China, Egypt, etc. -The Uffington White Horse -cut by the Celts in England, AD 100 -figure is roughly 374 X 110 ft -created by cutting away turf ID SLIDES Uffington White Horse History of Landscape Architecture Western Asia to the Muslim Conquest -evolution from hunter/gathering to agriculture probably began in Mesopotamia -here started one of the world’s first civilizations, Sumer -first literate civilization -Hammurabi’s first published code of law governing water access and rights Social History -social structure of Sumer arose from need to regulate irrigation -city states evolved, Babylon was established in 2250 BC -the social structure was civil with a King at the top and a priesthood with moderate power below -in 1275 BC Babylon fell to the Assyrians -in 606 BC, power was re-established under Nebuchadnezzar II -Persia conquered the region in 538 BC and established Persepolis as its capitol -Persian Empire became the greatest in the world Expression -the Ziggurat was built by the Sumerians -an early expression of humans determination to place their mark on the face of the earth -it was believed to be a holy mountain, God lived at the summit -observatory for the stars -Ziggurat of Ur is considered Sumer’s greatest surviving monument -terraces were planted with trees -walls were of baked brick around a core of mud brick -walls were painted, lower stages black, upper were red, and the shrine itself was covered in blue lazed tiles and topped with a gilded dome -the legendary Tower of Babel was a Ziggurat form The Hanging Gardens of Babylon -Gardens that were placed on ziggurats and appeared to be floating when seen from a distance -first idea of terraced roof garden ID SLIDES Ziggrat of ur Hanging Gardens of Babylon The Assyrians -strong military power -with the domestication of horses under the Assyrians came the first hunting and fishing parks -parks were geometrically laid out and stocked with exotic plants and wild animals -the artificial hill and temple of Khorsabad is considered one of the earliest picturesque landscapes of the western world ID SLIDES The Assyrians Palace at Khorsabad King Asherbanipal in his Garden The City of Persepolis -capital of the Persian Empire -site was chosen by Cyrus the Great but the actual construction began during the time of Darius the First -very geometric design on a plateau projecting from a mountain -provided great defense -it was a symbol of power and domination over the surroundings ID SLIDES Persepolis Landscapes -paradise Garden evolved in Persia -garden design was dictated by irrigation -garden was square of rectangle and was laid geometrically within protected walls -it was crossed by intersecting water channels that were symbolic of the 4 rivers of heaven -it contained theoretically all the fruits of the earth -this means that it simply had everything that you desired Garden Carpets -the Spring Carpet of Chosroes was a 100 square foot carpet depicting ID SLIDES Persian Garden Rug garden with canals, flowers, and trees -worked in silk, gold, and precious stones - if you couldn’t go outside due to weather, the carpet created a garden like atmosphere inside
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