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NTRI 2000 weeks 1 and 2

by: Alyssa Anderson

NTRI 2000 weeks 1 and 2 NTRI 2000

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Alyssa Anderson

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These notes cover the material we went over the first 2 weeks of class and will be on the first exam.
Nutrition and Health
Dr. Greene
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Anderson on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000 at a university taught by Dr. Greene in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views.

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Date Created: 01/28/16
1 Alyssa Anderson Nutrition Notes Weeks 1 and 2 Nutrition- the science that links food to diseases and focuses on the process of ingestion, digestion, absorption, transportation, metabolism, and excretion 1. Note: by age 65 you’ll eat around 70,000 meals (50 tons of food) 2. Food has a cumulative effect Nutrient- component of food that are indispensable to the functioning of the body 1. Provide energy 2. Building blocks 3. Support growth 4. Maintains/repairs body Essential Nutrient- nutrients our bodies can’t make or make in sufficient amounts that MUST be obtained from the diet and must have the following criteria: 1. A specific function in body 2. Omission of these lead to decline in the functions of the body 3. Replacing these restores normal function Malnutrition- any condition caused by a deficiency or excess of nutrient intake 1. The only thing that has a bigger effect on your health is tobacco 2. Many nutritionally-related diseases are chronic and take years to show up clinically Leading Causes of Death 1. Heart disease 2. Cancer 3. Lung Disease Nutrition and Disease 1. Poor diet is a risk factor for many chronic diseases A. Cardiovascular Disease B. Some forms of cancer C. Hypertension D. Lover disease 2. These diseases account for about 2/3 of all deaths in North America 3. All of these deaths are linked with obesity 4. Obesity is the second leading cause of preventive death 2 The Six Classes of Essential Nutrients 1. Carbohydrates (C, H, O)- macronutrient 2. Lipids aka fats (C, H, O)- macronutrient 3. Proteins (C, H, O, N)- macronutrient 4. Water (H, O)- macronutrient 5. Vitamins- micronutrient 6. Minerals- micronutrient NOTE: most energy comes from proteins, most carbohydrates, and most lipids Phytochemicals 1. Plant compounds that are thought to cause health benefits 2. Energy comes from the SUN through light 3. CO2 + H20 + light -> CHO + O2 (photosynthesis) 4. CHO + O2 -> CO2 + H2O + energy (metabolism) 5.example: carotenoids (such as in lycopene tomatoes) 6.example: resveratrol (such as in red wine and grape juice) Measure of Energy in Nutritions 1. calorie/Kcal 2. These are units that describe the energy contents of food 3. 1 kcal is the heat needed in order to raise the temperature of 1000 mL of water 1*C 4. 1 kcal = 1000 calories = 1 Calorie Energy in Nutrients (4-9-4 rule) 1. Carbohydrates (4 kcal/gram) 2. Fat (9 kcal/gram) 3. Proteins (4 kcal/gram) 4. NOTE: alcohol is not a nutrient but a TOXIN. 7 kcal/gram Objectives for Our Society’s Diet (for those 2 years and older) 1. increase fruit intake/varriety 2. increase calcium levels in diets 3. increase vegetable intake/variety 4. increase amount of whole grains 5. reduce calorie intake 6. decrease levels of saturated fats/added sugars 7. decrease sodium levels 8. reduce iron deficiency (maintain healthy levels) 3 Why Do We Choose the Food We Eat? 1. Biological Drives- very complex A. Hunger- a physiological drive to eat B. Appetite- A psychological drive to eat C. Satiety- a feeling of being full, which halts the drive to eat 2. Cultural/Social Reasons A. Social needs B. Network of family and friends C. Food customs/cultures D. Cost of food E. Education/Knowledge F. Occupation and Income G. Routines/Habits H. Lifestyle/Health I. Nutrition concerns J. Benefits K. Food Marketing L. Food availability M. Food flavor, texture, appearance N. Preferences O. Psychological needs Reasons to Select A Particular Food 1. Positive Association 2. Region/County 3. Social Pressure Wellness in College 1. Develop a plan A. Eating habits B. Food choices C. Weight control, especially when faces with unlimited food D. Exercise regularly 2. How to avoid the Freshman 15: A. Eat breakfast B. Plan ahead C. Limit liquid calories D. Stock the fridge with healthy choices 4 The Challenge of Choosing Foods 1. There are more foods to choose from than ever before 2. Ironically, this variety has made it more difficult to elect a nutritious diet 3. However, we now have more technology that helps live healthier lives, such as product websites, apps, and online calculators. When given the protein, carb, and fat count of a dish, know how to determine the calories in a dish and the percentages of the count based off the total. Food Philosophy: Consume a variety of foods balanced by a moderate intake of each food. Characteristics of a healthy diet: 1. Adequacy 2. Balance 3. Moderation 4. Nutrient density 5. Energy content 6. Variation- choosing a number of different food groups. 7. NOTE: supplements don’t have every component you need. Phytochemical's are found in variety. No one food can meet your nutritional needs. Variety- tips for boosting phytochemical intake 1. Use veggies in main/side dishes 2. Use grain in side dishes 3. Opt for fruit-filled cookies 4. Get creative at the salad bar (go for the rainbow) 5. Eat fresh/dried fruit for snacks 6. Add vegetables to sandwiches 7. Try to eat vegetarian meals once or twice a week 8. Use different lettuces (romaine over iceberg) 9. Use fresh salsa for dips instead of something creamy 10. Eat whole grain cereals 11. Use herbs and spices such as ginger or rosemary over salt 12. Try to incorporate tofu, soy milk, and soybeans into meals Balance- select food from 5 major food groups every day 1. Grains 2. Vegetables 3. Fruits 4. Milk/Dairy 5. Protein 5 Moderation- can refer to portion size (calories, diet composition) 1. Fats (saturated fast and trans fats) 2. Salt 3. Cholesterol (saturated fats) 4. Refined carbohydrates (added sugars) Adequacy- obtaining all the essential nutrients in order to meet all the bodys need plus storage Nutrient Density- 1. Has to do with the nutritional quality of food 2. Nutrient content of the food per calorie 3. Determined with respect to individual nutrients 4. High nutrient density = many nutrients, few calories 5. Low nutrient density = few nutrients, many calories (“empty calories”/“junk food”) 6. Diet planning should focus on total diet, not just adequacy for one group 7. Foods with a high nutrient density help balance low nutrient density foods Energy Density 1. Ensures that you receive enough but not too many calories to maintain a healthy body weight 2. Caloric content of food per gram 3. High fat content means greater energy density 4. Foods with high water and fiber content will have a lower energy density 5. It is very important in body weight control 6. example of high energy foods: nuts, fried foods, cookies 7. Low energy foods promote satiety without a high calorie count States of Nutritional Health 1. Your body’s nutritional health is determined by considering the nutritional state of each needed nutrient 2. Three categories A. Desirable Nutrition B. Undernutrition 1. Intake of nutrient does not meet the body’s needs 2. If the body’s surplus is ned, health declines 3. It can take years to develop clinical symptoms 6 C. Overnutrition 1. In the short run, it has few symptoms 2. If excess intake continues, nutrients may develop to toxic amounts (an excess in vitamin A can cause birth defects; excess in calories can lead to obesity, CV disease, diabetes, stroke, some cancers) 3. The amount of each nutrient needed to maintain a state of desirable nutrition is the basis for dietary intake recommendations 4. The state of undernutrition and overnutrition are both considered to be malnutrition How is Nutritional State Measured? 1. It is done by a physician and/or a registered dietician 2. Determines background factors A. Family Health History B. Medical History C. Medication/supplements intake D. Social History E. Level of Education F. Economic Status 3. Assessments (ABCDEs) A. Anthropometric (height, weight, body composition, circumference) B. Biochemical (enzyme or nutrient by-product in blood and urine) C. Clinical (appearance of skin, eyes, hair, etc.) D. Dietary (food intake) E. Environmental (ability to purchase/prepare foods, education, etc.) 4. Limitations- a long time may elapse before symptoms can be diagnosed as clinical


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