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ANTH 320 Notes Week 3

by: Hadley Ashford

ANTH 320 Notes Week 3 ANTH 320

Hadley Ashford
GPA 3.776

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About this Document

These notes cover the views of Sen and Shweder
Anthropology of Development
R. Colloredo-Mansfeld
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 320 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by R. Colloredo-Mansfeld in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Anthropology of Development in ANTH at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
ANTH 320 Notes 1/26/16-1/28/16 1/26/16 - Human aspiration= appear in public without shame o What do creditable people need/want to spend money on in order to be considered decent - Cultural pluralism: evaluate trade-offs in combination with conflicting moral goods - Annapurna’s choice reading: o Her 3 choices of moral good: 1. Equality, distribution of wealth 2. Happiness, life satisfaction 3. Quality of life- all humans deserve same minimum quality of life - Academic discipline-related thinking: o Each academic discipline has different set of key concepts o Prioritize specific subset of information o Specific related examples o Views of interconnections between factors o Relevant information o Sets of measures, different forms of expertise o Different blind spots o Related to differences between cultures- how is one way of thinking (culture) better than another considering these variables/strengths/weaknesses - Problem of how institutions should prioritize, measure success, or encourage investment - Utility: availability of different market choices  satisfaction - Freedom: measured by availability/opportunity to choose in free, unregulated market - Utility problems according to Sen: o People do not gain same satisfaction from same material good - Freedom problems according to Sen: o Equal availability of choice doesn’t take into account people’s specific self-interest - Freedom necessary in combination with agency/action o Primary goods not good measure o Person must be able to use primary goods to increase life satisfaction/quality of life - Using goods for development/betterment: o Functionings: values of what people like or want to be o Capabilities: combination of functionings that can actually be achieved - Important value= freedom to be able to achieve capabilities o Pluralist  Focus on different functioning (viewpoints)  Importance of availability vs. achievement  Capabilities still need to be weighed against other values/factors 1/28/16 - Midterm question example: o Identify at least one similarity between Sen’s and Shweder’s ideas about pluralism. o Identify at least one difference - Shweder’s beliefs: many universal values, must choose between them, can’t have them all - Sen’s commitment to pluralism: o Different fucntionings (closest view to Shweder): all people/communities are different- want/do different things o Another difference is ability to achieve those things o Capabilities depend on other factors: institutions, policy o How can we be different and reasonable in those differences - Difference between Sen and Shweder: o Shweder rejects economics effort o Sen takes available information and works with it  How to evaluate development  Sen insists on presence of democracy - Technocracy: insist on one single measure of progress/development o Ex. only focus on GDP as measure of development o Clarity: utility can be easily measured by market choices o Comparability: improvement over time, compared with other countries o Problem: denies humanity as reasonable - Democracy: debate, modify, justify  dynamic evaluation o Evaluation formula is possible: must decide what is important and how to measure it o Usefulness determined by how people accept it o Need public discussion/input o Must still justify/discuss measures already used elsewhere o Openness/transparency of information - Sen believes development doesn’t necessarily provide capabilities to people- simply frees people/gives them agency to make use of them Sen on crises: - Physicians for Social Responsibility climate change report: o Increased drought  large-scale crop failure o Longer-lasting, more frequent heat waves o Increased survival of pests/diseases o Heavy rain/flooding erodes o Melting glaciers reduce available irrigation - Entitlement: resources that people have ownership over - Hunger: unable to establish entitlement over food - Where does entitlement come from? o Endowment: 1. Ownership of productive resources that has demand in markets a. Usually labor or land (becoming less common with urbanization) 2. Opportunity of employment to obtain something valuable 3. Reward from employed labor allows food entitlement - Famine occurs when many people lose their entitlement to food o Regardless to what happens to actual food supply o Ex. Bangladeshi famine  More food in country during famine than in previous years  Flooding led to loss of jobs/wages/ability to buy food  Large number of unemployed go hungry - Much of mortality during famine: o Disease o Poor sanitation o Population movement o Increasing public health, planning, and infrastructure can reduce mortality - Democracy= solution to famine o Factors contributing to famine:  Political isolation of power/ruler  Lack of accountability of policymakers  Cultural alienation: discrimination/ignorance of problems of those removed from positions of power - Climate change creates vulnerability to famine - Inequality creates isolation  failed entitlements  increased likelihood of famine


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