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LAST 170 In-Class Notes - WEEK 2

by: Stef Antonopoulos

LAST 170 In-Class Notes - WEEK 2 LAST 170

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Stef Antonopoulos
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This includes the in-class notes from week two.
Introduction to Latin America
McKenna, E
Class Notes
Latin America, Latin American History, history, notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stef Antonopoulos on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LAST 170 at a university taught by McKenna, E in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views.

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Date Created: 01/28/16
Latin America: What is it and Why  should it be Studied?  OUTLINE  ● What is Latin America?  ● What does it refer to?  ● Latin America(ns) as a units  ● Is Latin America a myth?  ● Studying in Latin America  ● John Chasteen    DISCUSSION FORUM DUE AT 8 AM THURSDAYS; REPLY DUE AT 11:59 PM SUNDAYS    What is Latin America?  Geographical Entity  ○ Why is Mexico separated from its continent?  ■ Part of North American continent  ○ What about the Caribbean  ■ part of it is part of LA, not all of it.  ■ not drawn across geographical lines at all times  It is a political formation  ○ What do these leaders have in common?  ■ cannot necessarily find a common agenda/goals  ■ political relationships with the United States  What constitutes Latin American  ○ General Linguistic Map of Latin America  ■ Spanish, Portuguese, French (French Vienna), English (Belese)  ● Major languages spoken, however, many other languages spoken  throughout the region  Cultural Unit  ○ First­TIme Latin America book  ■ encapsulates entire region in a couple of photos  ● glaciers  ○ Latin Party  ■ singular cultural identity    Contrasting Landscapes and soundscapes  ○ Rumba, Guaguancó Matanzas, Cuba  ○ Forro, Pojuca, Brazil  ○ Bajofondo Tango Club (Tango Rock), Buenos Aires, Argentina  ○ Easter Music, Conima, Peru  ○ Molotov (Rock/Hip­Hop), Ciudad de México, México  Much diversity, yet…  Often we see Latin America represented as a  unit  ● This can be particularly problematic for people  ○ Sophia Vergara: standing to represent LA  ■ Expression, corporeal language, loud, accent, uses English &  Spanish, passionate  ■ Too blonde to be Latina  ○ Terms like Latino or Hispanic do not always capture diversity and lead to  stereotype  Is Latin America a Myth?  Yes and No:  ● Yes­­ stereotypes (skin, hair)  ● Yes­­ diversity (skin, hair, music)  ● No­­ similarities (patterns connected to colonial power)  ● No­­ strategic essentialism (things that have in common, they use to bind together­­  emphasize similarities rather than differences in order to accomplish goals )  ● No­­ historically useful (contemporary, reason why we speak the way we do, talk about it  as a group, helpful)  Historically, what is Latin America  Latin America is separate from US  Amerigo Vespucci  The term “Latin America”  ● Chilean sociology Francisco Bilbas (1823­1865) is claimed to have coined the term  ● Made popular during the mid­19th century by the French under Napoleon the II (political  and economic region  ● Distinguish the two    ● Take into account similarities and difference  ● think critically about representations and stereotypes  ● avoid thinking in generalizations and assume complexity    Why Study Latin America?  How has Latin America been thought of in the US?  ● stereotypes (find out more below)  Explaining Latin America: Different Foci during the 20th century  Why is Latin America Poor?  So much wealth within the region, but still so much poverty    1. Racial/Cultural and Environmental Determinism (Until 1930s)  ○ Racial Explanations  ■ Afro and Indigenous populations and racial mixture does not create the  best kind of population  ○ Cultural explanations:  ■ Catholic cultural traits inferior to protestant cultural traits  ○ Environmental explanations:  ■ Weather is bad for economic activity  ● Solution: The region needed European immigration    2. Modernization Theory (1940­1970)  ● Developmentalism or Modernization Theory  ○ Underdeveloped Countries→ Developed Countries  ● Backward mentalities need to be modernized  ○ Focus and blame to the elites for maintaining certain systems that were holding  LA back into underdeveloped system    3. Dependency Theory (1960s­1980s) (PICTURE)  ● In a world of winners and losers, Latin America stated losing  ○ Semi­periphery and periphery can never escape  ○ Dependant system that cannot get out of    4. Social Constructionism (1990s­today)  ● Contemporary perspectives on Latin America  ● Identity politics: gender, race, class, religion, national and regional identities  ○ Model for other places to use because combines many aspect to make LA what it  is    To understand...  ● the world  ● human condition (in the way that they have dealt with these situations)  ● complex relationship between the US and the countries of LA  ● Consider in which contexts LA is useful/not  Framework  ● History according to Trouillot:  ○ 2 parts  ○ 3 roles  ○ 4 moments of silence  ○ Trouillot through Example    ● Prologue chapter one for next four lectures  ● FRENCY CC    Michel­Rolph Trouillot (1949­2012  Anthropologist  ● Silencing the Past  ○ History and power  ○ Competing groups and individuals  ○ Arguing that they are much less powerful  ■ biased representation about what had happened  ■ It's a powerful thing because we cannot always see it (not in the forefront  of our mind)­­> why important to raise issues in this book  ○ How does Trouillot comes to understand history  ○ There are two parts of history that we we need to proces    ● There is a distinction and an overlap between  ○ 1. sociohistorical process (what happened)  ○ 2. historical narrative (“what is said to have happened”)  1 LAST 170 EXAM 1  Understanding Trouillot Through The Battalion de  San Patricio  What does that mean for us?  History is not the truth of what happened in the past”  The past is anything that already happened    We often cannot know what happened in the past   ○ no info remains  ○ people have different versions of events    Yet, this does not mean that anything goes or the past is irrelevant  ○ It’s plausible that this stuff has happened; valid    The focus is not so much on what history is, but how it works; the process  ○ don’t think about concrete facts/events that happened  ■ talk about how history has worked in the way that people came up their  story over time and how they came to accept their story    History as social process involves people in three distinct capacities:   ○ 1. Agents­in“relations”  ■ these people have structural positions  ● Class: instructor, students  ○ 2. Actors “doing”  ○ 3.​Subjects “experiencing”  ■ in regards to what’s going on  ● can give voice to their experience based on what something is on    Moments where Silence might enter History:  ○ 1. fact creation (the making of sources)  ■ silencing at the level of making sources  ● Sources examples: primary accounts of what happened,  eye­witnesses, a letter, newspaper  ○ 2. fact assembly (the making of archives)  ■ physical: collect historical info (online)  ● Other: museum (repository for different artefacts), or a library (a lot  of sources, contain sources)  ○ 3. fact retrieval (the making of narratives  2 LAST 170 EXAM 1  ■ movies, museum exhibits (tell us narrative, shows us a bit, guides us in  understanding of what has happened)  ○ 4. retrospective significance (the making of history in the final  instance)­(1995):26)  ■ governments gives us an official version of something (not anything less  than any other… but it INCREASE SIGNIFICANCE of the source  ● EX: memorials (something made public so people will only think  that this is the real thing  ● EX: movies make us think a certain way and how it is in a textbook  across the entire country  Understanding Trouillot through example  ● Video about how the Irish were considered traitors by the Americans  ● St. Patrick's Battalion (Battalion de San Patricio)  ○ Story continued in Mexico and Ireland  ■ US were ashamed and got rid of history      ● Socio­historic Process: there was a battalion of foreigners, many of whom were  originally from Ireland who fought with Mexico during the war between Mexico and the  US. A number of these men deserted from the US army.  ○ Join Mexico’s side    ● Historical Narrative:The interpretation you just watched, the feature film One Man’s  Hero about the San Patricio’s, the numerous books about the subject, people’s  renditions  ● Executing Soldiers = fact creation    ● Fact creation: executing the San PAtricio’s­eliminating witnesses to tell their story,  Destroying letter/ documents that tell of their existence, not reporting on them  ○ destorring letters, docs of existence    ● Fact assembly:​ not arching newspapers that report on the SP’s, Not including info  about them in a museum about the war, not holding books about them in a library  ○ Not include info / artefacts about them in museum (archive), NO FLAG    ● Fact retrievalnot including the SP’s in a book/ report/ exhibit about the war or history  ○ missing in the war stories, found out when visiting mexico    ● Retrospective Significance:​ Absence of the SP’s from collective knowledge,  minimising contribution in memorials  3 LAST 170 EXAM 1  ○ minimizing memorials or celebration, statue (nature of war and desertion, but  doesn’t explain why not in history… we could have learned how certain immigrant  groups were feeling in the past, more connected to other values, not part of  common understanding in that part of history  ○ Took on trivialness in US history, not relevant or care about… we should  understand that his happened because these things are left out in our history)  What is power?  ● The relative control by one group/individual over something important to another  group/individual  When does power come to play in history  ● Narrator  ● The person or people with the power to tell the sotry/represent other  ● Discourse   ○ language that is used to tell the story  The power in the story: the narrator matters  ● Consider who is doing the representing, for whom, why, etc.  ● History is told by the victors  ● Ex: Sofia Vergara on Modern Family  The power in the story: Discourse Matters  ● Examples: Discovery, Encounter, Conquest  ● Latin America, Hispanic America, America  ● LAST 170 as a Non­Western Course        4 LAST 170 EXAM 1 


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