Study Guide for Test 1
Study Guide for Test 1 PSY 3003
Arkansas Tech University
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Summer Stackhouse on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3003 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Willbanks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Study Guide Answers Describe the two main models that explain the relationship between genetics and environment. (Diathesis-stress & reciprocal gene environmental). Give a detailed example of each. Diathesis-Stress o According to this model, individuals inherit tendencies to express certain traits or behaviors, which may be activated under conditions of stress. (ex. Alcoholism) o Each inherited tendency is a diathesis, which means literally a condition that makes someone susceptible to developing a disorder. o When a certain stressor or life event comes up, the disorder develops. o This tendency is the diathesis or vulnerability. o The stress and the genetics must be combined to develop the disorder. Reciprocal Gene Environmental o According to this model, people with a genetic vulnerability to develop a certain disorder may also have a personality trait that makes them more likely to be involved in minor situations that would expose them to the environmental risk factors needed to develop the disorder. (ex. Impulsive behavior related to blood-injection injury phobia) o Our genes contribute to how we create our own environment. The Mental Status Examination is a structured and detailed way of assessing an individual’s current mental state. It aims to gather information on the following five criteria: Appearance and behavior, thought processes, mood and affect, intellectual functioning, and sensorium. Define and explain each criterion, and give a brief example of each. Appearance and Behavior o The clinician would note an overt physical behaviors. (ex. Slow and effortful motor behavior) Thought Processes o The clinician would listen to the patients answer questions and determine if they have trouble with rate or speech or difficulty in forming thoughts. (ex. A disorganized speech patterns in patients with schizophrenia) Mood and Affect o Mood- the predominant feeling state of the individual. o Affect- the feeling state that accompanies what we say at any given point. o The clinician would listen to you talk about a certain event to see if your mood and affect are appropriate responses. (ex. Laughing when you say something sad) Intellectual Functioning o The clinician will just talk to the patient to determine the general intelligence of the person. o (ex. Do they have reasonable vocabulary? How is their memory?) Sensorium o Sensorium- refers to our general awareness of our surroundings. o The clinician would just check to make sure the patient was aware of his or her surroundings. (ex. “oriented times three” refers to person, place, and time) Describe the basic premise and beliefs of psychoanalytic theory. Be sure and state the contributions psychoanalytic theory made, as well as what facets fell to criticism. Psychoanalytic Theory o Based on the idea that the “unconscious mind” has a major influence of the production of psychological disorders. o This involved the releasing of emotional material, known as catharsis. o Basic ideas: The structure of the mind and the distinct functions of the personality sometimes clash with one another. The defense mechanisms with which the mind defends itself from these clashes or conflicts. The stages of early psychosexual development provide grist for the mill of our inner conflicts. o Structures of the Mind: Id- this is the source of our strong sexual and aggressive feelings or energies. Ego- the part of our mind that ensure that we act realistically. Superego- this represents the moral instructions instilled in us by our parents or culture. o Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development: Oral- structured with the central focus being on food. (aged 2 years from birth) Anal- Focuses on controlling the bathroom tendencies. Phallic- characterized by early genital self-stimulation. Latency Genital o Criticisms of Psychoanalytic Theory It is basically unscientific. There has been no careful measurement of any of these phenomena and no obvious way to prove or disprove the basic hypothesis. Describe how the treatment of psychological disorders has evolved over time. Be sure to include the Supernatural, Biological and Psychological traditions in your answer. Supernatural o Etiology- thought psychological disorders came from devil, witches, and demons. o Treatments- included exorcisms, torture, and crude surgeries. Biological o Etiology- thought psychological disorders came from physical diseases. (ex. Syphilis) o Treatments- insulin shock therapy, neuroleptics, and tranquilizers. Psychological o Etiology- thought psychological disorders came from social and environmental factors. o Treatments- reeducation via discussion, putting people in therapeutic environments, moral therapy. Describe the different factors that go into forming a psychological disorder and give examples of each. Psychological dysfunction- emotional, cognitive, or behavioral o Ex. If you are on a date it should be fun, but if you are experiencing severe fear that is not normal. Distress or impairment-based on degree or situation Ex. If you are shy to the point where you cant interact with people on a basic level. Not typical or culturally unexpected- norms differ from one culture to the next o Ex. Rock artist wearing heavy makeup while on stage is normal in some cultures but not in others. Detail the major differences in the DSMs. Highlight the differences between DSM-IV and the three previous editions and highlight the differences between the DSM-IV and DSM-5. DSM- I o Had little influence on the diagnosis of psychological disorders. DSM- II o This had more influence than the first, but the systems lacked precision, and relied on unproven theories not widely accepted by health proffesionals. DSM- III o Took a theoretical approach to diagnosis, relying on precise descriptions of disorders. o It also went into specific detail of the criteria for identifying disorders, which made it possible to study their reliability and validity. o It allowed individuals with disorders to be rated on five dimensions or axes. DSM- IV o Any changes in the diagnostic systems were to be based of scientific data. o The distinctions between organically based disorders and psychological based disorders that was in previous editions was eliminated. DSM- V o There are no major differences between the DSM IV and V except for some organizational and structural changes. Multiple Choice What constitutes a psychological disorder? Know this in semi-detail. (answered above) What does a clinical description entail? Know prevalence, incidence, course, prognosis, etiology, etc. o Clinical description- the presenting problem o Prevalence- how often a disorder occurs in a given population. o Incidence- how many new cases occur in a given time period o Course- Episodic- short periods of time, in and out Time limited- short term, most likely won’t come back Chronic- long term (ex. Schizophrenia) o Prognosis Good- this is a good or positive prognosis Guarded- a bad prognosis of the condition o Etiology- the cause or development of psychopathology For the Supernatural and Biological traditions: know etiology and treatment, and their contribution to what we now know. (answered above) Psychological tradition, moral therapy and mental hygiene movement o Moral Therapy- treating people like normal human beings to try and promote recovery. o Mental Hygiene Movement- Adolf Meyer, the idea in which everyone with a psychological disorder needed to be put in a hospital. Know the psychoanalytic theory in depth (answered above) Humanistic theory, Rogers, and Maslow o Theory- People are good, person centered therapy o Rogers- person centered therapy, how does that make you feel? o Maslow- Hierarchy of needs, experiment with dogs and meatpowder. Behaviorism, Watson and Skinner o Behaviorism- Classical conditioning o Watson- “father of behaviorism”, did the “little Albert” experiment with the white rat and development of phobias. o Skinner- person’s behavior operates off of environment, positive and negative reinforcement, behavior shaping Multidimensional integrative approach: Know what it means, and what influences occur. o Systematic way that stated that several independents put together become interdependent. Interaction of genes and environment: know Diathesis-stress model and Reciprocal gene-environment model. (answered above) Know epigenetics and the research conducted on cross-fostering rat pups. o Epigenetics- the idea that genes get turned off and on based on environmental factors and we our genes aren’t necessarily permanently programmed. Methyl groups- DNA instructions Histones- tightness or looseness of DNA o Cross fostering rat pups Rats born from anxious mothers but raised by calm mothers were calm and vice versa. Reliability, Validity and Standardization. What they are & why they are important. o Reliability- consistent over time o Validity- the results are concurrent, predictive, and face. o Standardization- important because of tests were different they wouldn’t be accurate. Know the 5 criteria assessed/observed during the Mental Status Exam. (answered above) Know the ABCs of Observation, and self-monitoring. o Antecedent Behavior Consequence- the consequences given to certain behaviors. o This type of observation relies on the observer’s recollection and interpretation of the events he or she is watching. o Self-Monitoring- clinicians will often ask people to self-monitor to help understand the condition. (ex. Counting cigarettes smoked in a day) Know Rorschach, TAT (projective tests)—the basic premise of the tests & pros and cons o The basic premise of the test in to gauge the basic personality aspects of a person by asking them to identify ambiguous ink blot pictures. It is not used that often because of the reliability and validity issues. Know MMPI-2 and other personality inventories. Pros and cons. o MMPI-2 is based on empirical approach, which is the collection and evaluation of data. o Problems- people had the potential to answer questions in ways to downplay their problems. Know the differences between the categorical approach, dimensional approach and prototypical approach. o Categorical- often used in medical situations because of the idea that every diagnosis has a clear physiological cause. o Dimensional- done by noting the variety of conditions, moods, and behaviors from which the patient presents and quantify them on a scale. o Prototypical- used by listing many possible features of a disorder and the candidate must meet most or all of them to fall into that category. What is important about the year 1980? o The DSM-III was created. Know the pros and cons of the DSM-IV-TR (answered above) Know comorbidity and labeling. o Comorbity- when individuals are diagnosed with more than one psychological disorder at the same time. o Labeling- when we categorize people. (most labels have a negative connotation) Know the key changes made in the DSM-5 (answered above)