Human Development-Week 2-Genetics V Environment & Prenatal Development
Human Development-Week 2-Genetics V Environment & Prenatal Development HDFS 005
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adele on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 005 at University of Vermont taught by Deborah Curtis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Human Development in HDFS at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Textbook Notes Chapter 2Genetic and Environmental Founda ons Genetic Foundations Phenotypesdirectly observable physical characteristics Genotypesgenetic info 0 Genetic Foundations 0 Chromosomesrodlike structures which hold genetic information o DNAdeoxyribonucleic acid 0 Genesegment of DNA on a chromosome 0 Mitosisprocess of replicating nonsex cell 0 Cytoplasmarea surrounding cell nucleus Proteins trigger chemical reactions in body 0 Gametessperm and ovum o Meiosishalves number of chromosomes Process of gamete production 0 Conception forms zygote which is the uni cation of ovum and sperm 0 Humans22 out of 23 pairs of chromosomes are autosomes matching pairs 1 pairsex chromosomes Females are XX Males are XY 0 Fraternaldizygotic twinshappens when two ova are released and fertilized o ldenticalmonozygotic twinszygote that started to duplicate separates into two clusters of cells that eventually turn into two individuals 0 Allelesdifferent forms of genes 0 Homozygousif both alleles are the same 0 Heterozygousalleles are different Dominantrecessiveinheritance lf Hh then are carriers because do not express the trait but can pass trait to children 0 Most disabilities and disease are product of recessive alleles Ex Phenylketonuria PKUbody cant process certain protein and build up can cause mental retardation o Incomplete dominanceboth alleles are expression in phenotypes resulting in intermediate traits 0 Ex Sick cell anemiatrait o Xlinked inheritanceharmful allele is carried on the X chromosome Males are more likely to be affected Y chromosome is only about 13 as long and therefore not as many genes on it to counteract X Ex Hemophilia Though males tend to be most highly effected nature compensateshigher birth rate of males in world 0 Genomic imprintingalleles are imprintedchemically marked so one pair member is activated regardless of its makeup o Mutationpermanent change in segment of DNA 0 Germline mutationhappens in cells that give rise to gametes Passed on to next generation 0 Somatic mutationnormal ces mutate Cause of cancer 0 Polygenic inheritance 0 Many genes in uence characteristic Ex Height Chromosomal Abnormalities 0 Most are due to mistakes during meiosis 0 Most abnormalities on autosomes cause miscarriage 0 Down Sydromeresults from failure of 21st pair of chromosomes to separate during meiosis and the individual gets three pairs Or extra incomplete piece of 21st chromosome is attached to another chromosome translocation patterns Error occurs during states of mitosis which makes some but not all body cells to have the incorrect chromosomal makeup Abnormalities of the Sex Chromosome Often not realized until adolescence Most children with these types of abnormalities have speci c intellectual de cits ex Verbal dif culties or special relationships Reproductive Choices Donor insemination In Vitro Fertilization Surrogate motherhood Genetic Counselingcommunication process designed to help couples asses their chances of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder and choose what they believe to be the bestmost informed path forward Pedigreepicture of family tree in which affective relatives are affected Prenatal diagnostic methodsmedical procedures that permit detection of developmental problems before birth 0 Amniocentesis o Chorionic villus sampling Fetoscopy Ultrasound Maternal blood analysis Ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging MRI Preimplantation genetic diagnosis Advances in genetic engineering Human Genome Projectallowed identi cation of genes in abnormalities Gene therapycorrecting gene abnormalities by delivering DNA carrying a functional gene to the cells Proteomicsscientists modify genespeci c proteins involves in biological aging and disease 0 390 390 IO 390 Adoption o Adopted children tend to have more learning and emotional dif culties which increase according to the child s age at adoption Environmental Contexts for Develobment Focus of this sectionMacrosystem 0 Family 0 Most in uence of any macrosystem 0 Learn language skills and socialmoral values of speci c culture within family 0 Isolationalienation from family is often associated with developmental problems 0 Modern researchers see family as a network of interdependent relationships Is a systemfamily responses are related Example of bidirectional relationship Coparentingparents supporting each other s parenting behaviors Children who have been brought up with parents in a hostile marriage often learn to o lnternalize dif culties especially among girls Externalize dif culties especially among boys ex Aggression Socioeconomic status and family functioning Socioeconomic status SESway researches assess a family s standing in terms of social position and economic wellbeing 0 Three main varaibles 0 Years of education o Prestige of one s job and the skills it requires both of which measure social status 0 Incomemeasure of economic status Both children in poverty and extreme af uent situations tend to have academic and emotional issues as parents don t necessarily have enough time to devote to them Impact of neighborhoods Towns and cities 0 Small towns tend to be better for children as children tend to be involved in tasks that encourages learning and sense of responsibility 0 Cultural Context 0 Subculturesgroups of people with beliefs and customs that differ from those of the larger culture 0 Extendedfamily householdswhere three or more generation lives together 0 Collectivist society People de ne themselves as part of a group and stress group goals over individual goals Value interdependence social harmony obligation to and responsibility tofor others 0 lndividualistic society People think of themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs Value independent self emphasis on personal exploration discover achievement and individual choice in relationships 0 Public policieslaw and government programs designed to improve current conditions USAonly industrialized nation without a universal and publically funded healthcare system Understanding the Relationship Between Heredity and Environment Behavioral geneticsa eld of study devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to this diversity in human traits and abilities o Heritability estimatesmeasure the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a speci c population are due to genetic factors 0 They are obtained through kinship studies which compare characteristics of family members Most common kinship studies look at identical twins Most show a moderate strength in relationship to traits Give no precise information Tells nothing about how environment can modify gene cin uences Geneenvironment interactionmeans that because of genetic makeup individuals differ in their responsiveness to qualities of the environment People have unique genetically in uenced reactions to particular experiences 0 Shows because we have unique genetic makeup respond to environment differently 0 Different geneenvironment combinations can make two people look the same Geneenvironment correlationgenes in uence the environments to which we are exposed 0 At young ages two types of geneenvironment correlation are common Passive correlationchild has no control over it Environment correlation is evocative Children evoke response that are in uenced by the child s heredity and these responses strengthen the child s original style 0 At older ages active geneenvironment correlation becomes common Actively seek environments that t with their genetic tendencies Nichepicking this tendency is actively choose environments that complement our hereditary Parents and other adults can uncouple unfavorable genes environmental correlations by providing children with positive experiences that modify the expression of heredity yielding favorable outcomes Genesgene expression ll experiences and behavior 0 Epigenesisdevelopment resulting from ongoing bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment 0 Ex Smoking during pregnancy alters gene expression Chapter 3 Prenatal Development Birth and the Newborn Baby Prenatal Deve0pment Conception 0 Every 28 daysmiddle of menstrual cycleovum bursts from ovaries and is draw into one of the two fallopian tubes which lead to the uterus 0 As ovum travels place on ovary from which the ovum was reeasedcorpus luteum releases hormones to let the uterus know it should prepare its lining O O lt pregnancy doesn t happencorpus luteum shrinks and lining of uterus is discarded two days later Sperm produced in testes Sperm has tail that allows it to travel through the cervix and into the fallopian tube Sperm lives around six days where ovum only lives 1 Conception tends to occur within three days periodday of ovulation of two days before 38 weeks of pregnancydivide into three stages Period of Zygotes Lasts about two weeksfertilizationattachment to wall of uterus Fourth dayformation of blastocysthollow uid lled ball Cells on inside that will become the new organismembryonic disk Outer ring of celstrophoblastbecome structure that provide protection and nourishment Implantationhappens between days 7 and 9 It is when the blastocyst burrows into the uterine lining o Trophoblast grows fastest to form a membrane that encloses the zygote in amniotic uid The uid helps to provide a cushion and keep temperature constant A yolk sac is formed that produces blood until other parts of the body appear to take over 0 Aprox 30 of zygotes do not survive this process Placenta and Umbilical Cordby end of second week trophoblast forms a second protective membrane called the chorion The chorion surrounds the mnion and from it villi emerge which burron into uterine wall These mark the start of the creation of the placenta which allows food and oxygen to get to the zygote and waste to be taken away o It is connected to the zygote by the umbilical cordhas one large vein that delivers blood and two arteries which remove waste Period of Embryo implantation 8th week of pregnancy 0 second half of rst month 0 formation of three layers of cells ectodermbecomes nervous system and skin mesodermbecomes muscles circulatory system skeletal system and other organs and endoderm becomes digestive system urinary tract lungs and glands nervous system develops fastestectoderm folds to form neural tube early version of the spinal chord Second Month 0 OO O 0 Formation of eyes ears nose jaw and neck More distinct internal organs Arms legs ngers and toes 7 wksstart of neuron production After their production they move to their permanent placement and will later form major parts of the brain can move though mother cannot feel it responds to touch Period of Fetus Ninth week to end of pregnancy longest penod Rapid increase in size 3rCI month end of rst trimester O O organs muscles and nervous system start to become connected and organized 12th weekgender can be determined Second Trimester 0 0 Wk 1720mother can now feel movements Vernix white substance protects skin from chapping It is aided in sticking to the skin thanks to lanugo which is ne hair that appears all over the body End of 2nCI trimesterglial cessupport and feed neurons increase rapidly through remainder or pregnancy after birth Therefore brain increases in weight At the same timeneurons start to rapidly form synapses Brain cannot yet control breathingbody temperature Lungs are still immature Third Trimester 0000 O O O 0 Age of viabilitybetween wk 22 and 26 Point at which baby can survive but many still need oxygen assistance to breathe Lungs are mature but not ready to in ate Growth of the cerebral cortex Responsiveness to stimulation More time awake Signs of developing a speci c temperament Fetuses can remember for brief period Learn to distinguish between different people s voices 8th monthlayer of fat added to aid in temp regulation Prenatal Environmental In uences Teratogensenvironmental agent that causes harm during prenatal period Amount of harm done depends on 0 Dose 0 Heredity o Other negative in uences o Age Most damage can be done during the embryonic pedod o Prescription and nonprescription drugs Accutanecurrent most widely used teratogen Any drug with molecule small enough to enter placental barrier can enter fetal bloodstream o lHegaldrugs 4 of US pregnant mothers use causes birth defects newborn are addicted 0 Tobacco 14 of US pregnant mothers Most common effect is low birth weight 0 Alcohol Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder FASDumbrella statement that describes the range of mental physical and behavioral outcomes caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol Three different diagnoses Fetal alcohol syndrome FAS 0 Slow physical growth oThree facial abnormalities short eyelid openings thin upper lip smooth attened philtrum o Brain injuryshown by small heard and impairment in at least three areas of functioning oPartial fetal alcohol syndrome pFAS o Two of three above mentioned facial abnormalities o Brain injuryshown by impairment in at least three areas of functioning oAlcoholrelated neurodevelopmental disorder ARND o At least three areas of functioning are impaired Father drinking at or around time of expression can change gene expression Produces its effects by interfering with production and migration of neurons causes oxygen depletion o Radiation oEnvironmental pollution Mercury avoid seafood during pregnancy Poychlorinated biphenyls PCBs Lead Dioxinstoxic compounds that results from incineration oMen affected father more females than males seem to impair fertility of Ybearing sperm o Infectious disease Rubella HIVAIDS destroys immune system Passed on to offspring 2030 of the time Sensitive to family of herpes viruses Toxoplasmosis oOther Maternal Factors o Nutrition Mineralvitamin enrichment oEx Folic acid Malnutrition especially during last trimester can cause unweightundeveloped brain o Emotional Stress Especially during rst two trimesters can cause many difficulties like miscarriage prematurity colic sleep disturbances post birth and low birth weight o Rh Factor a protein Incompatibility When mother is Rhfactor negative and father is Rh positive the baby may get father s gene If any of baby s blood crosses into mother s blood stream she starts to form antibodies in response If these then enter baby s blood stream then destroy red blood cells reducing oxygen support First borns are rarely affected and danger increases with each pregnancy o Maternal Age Tend to have issues when oldermore birth defects High age of issues when mother is younger but tends to be due to her environmentbackground oThe Importance of Prenatal Health care o Help identity issues early one o Barriers to getting such health care Financia issues Situational barriers Persona barriers Childbirth Stages of Childbirth 3 o Dilation and effacement of the cervix Longest stage of labor 1214 hours Contractions of uterus cause cervix to widen and thin so as to form a clear channel from uterus into birth canal vagina o Delivery of the baby 50 min rst birth 20 min later births contractions of uterus with urge to push with abdominal muscles o Delivery of the Placenta Fina contractions cause placenta to separate from wall of uterus and to be delivered within 510 min oBaby s adaptation to labor and delivery o Increased stress hormones which wake up infant help baby withstand oxygen deprivation and prep baby to breathe oAssessing the Newborn s Physical Condition The Apgar Scale o Apgar Scaleused to quickly assess newborn s physical condition Rating of 02 is given on ve characteristics and then added together Score of 7 or above shows good physical condition The scale is done twiceonce at one minute and once at ve minutes Approaches to Childbirth 19505605 return to natural childbirth Natural or Prepared Childbirth o Natural or prepared childbirthgroup of techniques that aim to reduce pain and medication intervention The goal is to make childbirth a rewarding experience o In most childbirth programs there are three main activities classes relaxation and breathing techniques labor coach 0 doula oHome delivery 0 Most are handled by certi ed nursemidwives Medical Interventions oCerebral palsygeneral term used to describe various impairments in muscle coordination that are caused by oxygen deprivation near or around birth o 10 of these were caused by anoxia which is inadequate oxygen support breech positionfetus is turned to buttocks or feet would be delivered rst oFetal Monitoring 0 Fetal monitors track baby s heartrate during labor oLabor and Delivery Medication o Used in around 80 of US births oAnalgesicsrelieve pain o Anestheticsstronger pain killer and blocks sensation o Epidural analgesiaregional painrelieving drug is given continuously via catheter place in lower spine oCesarean Deliverysurgical birth where incision is made in the mother s abdomen and baby is lifted out of the uterus Preterm and LowBirthWeight Infants 0 Average birth weigh is 75 pounds Newborns below 35 pounds suffer from permanent difficulties 0 Preterm versus Smallfor Date Infants 0 Preterm infantsborn several or more wks before due date 0 Smallfor date infants are below their expected weight as compared to the length of the pregnancy Normally have more seirous problems 0 Consequences for Caregiving o Appearancebehavior of preterm babies can cause parents to be less attentive to them 0 Interventions for Preterm Infants 0 Isolettespecial Plexiglassenclosed bed where preterm babies are cared for Temperature closed regulated O O Fed through stomach tube Breathes with help from respirator Gets med through intravenous needle Special infant stimulation Touch incredibly important Kangaroocareplacing infant in vertical position between mother s breasts or next to father s chest Infant mortalitynumber of death during rst year alive per 1000 births It is used to assess children s health around the world Neonatal mortalitiydeath within rst month of life Infant Health and Development Programpreterm babies who are born into poverty receive widecovering intervention The Newborn Babv s Capacities Re exesautomatic response to certain form of stimulation 0 O O O In newbornsmost obvious organized behavioral pattern Grasp re ex Rooting re exhelps paper guide itself to their mother s nipple Stepping re exearly walking response States Infants tend to be in ve different states of arousal states of wakefulness and sleep 0 Regular sleep Irregular sleep Drowsiness Quiet alertness o Waking activity and crying Sleep 0 Two main states 0 REM sleeprapid eye movement brain wave activity is similar to that or when one is awake Body movement 0 NREM sleepbody doesn t really move Brain wave activity is even and slow Infants spend more time in REM 50 of sleep time then they will at any other point in their life 0 Sudden infant death syndrome SID unexpected and unexplained death of a child under 1 year old The death usually occurs at night Crying 0 Usually cry because of physical needs Colicchronic crying o Crying usually mitigated through physical touch and swaddling o Sensory Capacities Touch Helps stimulate physical growth 0 lnfantshighly sensitive to pain 0 Physical touch releases endorphins painkilling chemicals Taste and Smell Certain odor and taste preferences present at birth Smelluse as directional tool to guide self toward mother Adjusting to the New Family Unit Toward end of pregnancy mother produces oxytocin which stimulates contraction of the uterus a calm mood and increases responsiveness to the child Fathers show increase in hormones prolactin estrogen and drop in androgens Class Notes Re exes 1 2 imm Grati cationlets person know how to calm child Theory Babies look more like father at birth so the father will recognize them as their own Rootingway to help nd food source a When touch face turns face to look for nipple Sucking a Genetically wired to suck b Sometimes takes a bit to train the childfor them to gure out how to do so Moro Re exif tilt baby back they will arch their back tilt their head back and throw their arms out before curling up in a ball Capacity to distinguish smellhearing abiity to distinguish mum V nonmum They like sweet things a Will recognize sound of partner who has been talking to baby during gestation Cryinggets attention Eye blinkingkeep things out of their eyes helps reduce stress Touchif a baby is not touched for a very long period of time they can die 8 Stepping Re exif put feet on a surface they will make stepping motions 9 Babinski Re exit pet the bottoms of babies feet they will curl then open them 10 Grasp Re exif put nger in baby s palm then they will hold ontoit 11 Babies are cutequotIm cute love mequot Way of gettingkeeping attention Survival technique
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