POSC311 Week of 3/9 and 3/11
POSC311 Week of 3/9 and 3/11 POSC311
Popular in Politics of Developing Nations
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lesly Rodriguez on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POSC311 at University of Delaware taught by Michael Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Politics of Developing Nations in Political Science at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
04/05/2016 ▯ March 9 , 2016h ▯ Last time: Judiciary and Bureaucracy ▯ Systems of justice and systems of administration are just as important in determining developing world experience with the state ▯ Regime type just one element in governance ▯ Nature and quality of judiciary also important, as is public administration ▯ Implementation of laws and judicial decisions carried out by bureaucracy: teachers, police officers, foreign-service employees, for example Rule of Law ▯ First concept: rule of law; both state and society are bound by an impartial and neutrally enforced legal framework ▯ In other words: means that not even the highest-ranked political officeholder is above the law ▯ Everyone has to play equally ▯ Bureaucracy largely free of corruption ▯ Laws must be unbiased ▯ Law must be effectiveness: political authorities and the broader population must largely respect its dictates On the other hand ▯ Rule of man: when binding legal decisions are made at the whims of powerful persons to further own interests Corruption ▯ Second concept: corruption is the use of public authority to enrich or advantage oneself or a narrow group of persons ▯ Can exist in any branch of government ▯ Divided into grand corruption and petty corruption ▯ Grand: high-level officials and large amounts of money ▯ Petty: everyday, rand-and-file bureaucrats and small sums of money this may add up however ▯ Many cases are forms of bribery- attempts to make the system function on behalf of those paying the bribe ▯ Agency capture: when a particular branch of the bureaucracy shows recurring favoritism to a State Capacity ▯ Third concept: the degree at which a state is able to successfully and efficiently carry out its designated responsibilities and provide high-quality public goods and services ▯ Rests on bureaucracy’s ability and willingness to follow through on laws passed and interpreted by the legislative One average, LDCs are lacking in all of these in the appropriate levels Political Institutions and Underdevelopment ▯ Initially, many scholars believed that with the right economic development program, development could be created ▯ Structural adjustment policies in the 80s and 90s made significant economic changed to developing world ▯ Scholars began to think that economic changes would not be enough ▯ Began to see the problem of underdevelopment as a problem of governance, in addition to a problem of economics New International Economics school ▯ NIE: society’s political and economic institutions fundamental cause of economic performance ▯ Not a place but a school of thought ▯ Authoritarian governments, corrupt officials, inefficient bureaucrats and unfair judges the cause of development ▯ Kofi Annan NIE Identified Problem: Extractive Institutions ▯ Many leaders impoverish their populations by setting up extractive institutions: ▯ Institutions that organize politics and economics so as to authoritatively redistribute major portions of society’s wealth to narrow group of leaders ▯ Extraction? Through expropriation (taking of private property and declaring it state property), petty corruption, and rent-seeking ▯ Consequences extraction: numerous consequences; chilling effect on investment and tech advancement; diverted economic resources away from health, education, security and transportation sectors; jobs not awarded on merit deter qualified applicants, less capable workforce; less competitive markets, keeping prices high and quality low; pay bribe to be considered for job; people wont go for jobs with fear of not even being considered if they don't have strong connections in high places Zimbabwe Example ▯ Since 2000, authorized the expropriation of white farmers’ land (land taken by the farmers families from Africans mainly during colonial times) ▯ Yet when farmers land taken, farmers left, taking specialized knowledge about farming their land with them ▯ New landowners little interest in farming usually friends of Mugabe (president since 1980) ▯ Result: agricultural output has collapsed; cause great economic decline and underdevelopment ▯ Mugabe distorted market competition to provide advantage to friends ▯ Leaders of country were friends ▯ Locked telephone communication to allow friends to control it therefore for years Zimbabwe didn’t have communication ▯ Prevented from having phones and therefore tech underdevelopment NIE Identifies Solution ▯ Way to spark economic growth: replace LDC’s extractive institutions with inclusive institutions: democracy; rule of law; transparency; high state capacity; and property rights Critiques of NIE ▯ Economic Development comes first? ▯ One argument is that the observed relationship between econ development and democracy may actually be the other way around ▯ Perhaps econ development leads to democracy instead of democracy causing econ development ▯ Having professional bureaucracy and judiciary are expensive ▯ State capacity weaker in developing state due to great challenges ▯ Authoritarian advantage? ▯ Poor prefer immediate consumption over investment; democratic decision making in this context diverts resources In Reality: Mixed Evidence ▯ Statistical and other evidence show both sets of claims are not well supported ▯ Regime type impact in statistical studies mostly minimal ▯ Dramatic improvements in economic livelihood occurred under a variety of regimes: Soviet Union, China, South Korea, and Saudi Arabia ▯ Indonesia grew rapidly under one of the most corrupt leaders Robert Jackson- “Quasi-States” Article ▯ Argument? African statehood a ‘juridical artifact’ legal artifact ▯ Self-determination became international norm: African states acquired statehood and sovereignty as a result of normative developments at international level without acknowledgement of conditions on the ground in Africa ▯ African quasi-states have no real public, according to Jackson ▯ Several publics which are not substantively devoted to the state ▯ According to Jackson African states remained so because of their international recognition, but there was little evidence on the ground that they possessed the qualities of statehood otherwise ▯ Discussed juridical statehood and the definition of statehood that I mentioned in an earlier legislature ▯ Reviews history of sovereignty and the relationship between Africa and Europe ▯ Jackson also makes an argument about why Africa, post-independence, has held on to the borders set down by Europe ▯ Very little substantive criteria to enable states to be part of a larger ‘community of nations’; but what is needed is the basics of Montevideo Convention ▯ Why has Africa kept boarders drawn by Europeans during early colonization? Shifting boarders and shifting what state was would not help Africans interact with world ▯ Although article 30 years old some patters are still prevalent, but there have been some improvements and rough patches such as Rwanda and its genocide ▯ ▯ March 11 , 2016h Culture ▯ Culture is defined as the shared set of norms beliefs and recurring practices of people in a society ▯ Values and behaviors existing amongst majority of population, not focused on elites ▯ Culture is learned; individuals are socialized Social Identities ▯ Culture cast particular social identities onto individuals ▯ Social identity: part of a person’s self-understanding that stems form her or his membership in a group of people that is larger than the immediate family ▯ Types: race ethnicity nationality and region Social Science Debate of Social ID ▯ Social scientists disagree as to the nature of social identity ▯ Primordialism: tendency to see group identity as being implanted into individuals through socialization at a young age resistant to change in later life biological aspect ▯ Constructivism: identities are malleable, resulting from choices by both individuals and socializing agents Race ▯ Race is on type of social identity ▯ Category of persons that share some biological determined and easily observed physical traits (skin color, facial structure and hair type) ▯ Early primordial approaches categorized people into finite number of different races ▯ Modern constructivism acknowledges the fluidity of these categories and that they are subject to interpretation Ethnicity ▯ A group identity rooted in shared history, values, and practices ▯ Idea of common ancestry and territorial origin ▯ Ongoing practices serve to reinforce those ideas ▯ Indigenous groups: form of ethnicity Nationalism ▯ Combined group identity with claims to political institutions that correspond specifically to the group nationality is the expression of that identity ▯ Often linked avec ethnicity ▯ Mois nation a states : Brazilians Japanese ▯ Some do not: Kurds Religion ▯ Set of beliefs moral codes rituals symbols and supporting organizations that relate humanity to spirituality and the supernatural ▯ Provide explicit guidance about proper behavior and goals for the current life ▯ Four major religions: Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism and Islam Other culturally contingent traits ▯ Level of religiosity/secularity ▯ Degree of trust among persons who are strangers or not of the same family (interpersonal trust) Culturalist School and Underdevelopment ▯ Fundamental causes of societies poverty or prosperity lies in the shared norms, beliefs, value, and attitudes of its common citizens ▯ Max weber ▯ Modernization theory ▯ Through very important historically these types of explanations have less credibility today don’t rely on these Max Weber and the Protestant Ethic ▯ Famous sociologist German ▯ Wrote the protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism Modernization Theory ▯ This would have dominated some POSC classes and in comparative classes ▯ Asserted that modernization states lies on a continuum ▯ Pre-modern to modern ▯ Progress while not inevitable takes place in regular ways ▯ Changes to cultural values Culturalist Explanations Still Persist ▯ Social capitalist: benefits group or society receive from the ability of its members to trust each other and cooperate with one another ▯ Radius of trust ▯ Some culturalist suggest that a society’s level of trust and social capital is fixed psychological and social orientation ▯ Asian values argument (Confucianism and Asian miracles ▯ Suggestions that Islam is the reason Middle East’s relative disorder Responses to Culturalists ▯ Bad cultural values for economic and human development result of bad political leadership and suboptimal economic institutions policies and opportunities ▯ Baker gives three good examples ▯ 1. If the poor in LDCs save less it is surely because they must spend a higher share of their income on consumption to survive ▯ 2. If LDC citizens are less trusting probably because they reside in places with higher rates of elite corruption street crime and political violence ▯ 3. Fatalistic attitude more likely a result of psychological mechanism for coping with a harsh reality (they accept their underdevelopment) ▯ Culture mischaracterized ▯ Work ethic argument highly dubious billions work very hard in very low paying jobs for many hours than most in the West ▯ Lack of entrepreneurial spirit argument many developing world nations have much higher percentages of small business owners that in the West ▯ Rejection of tech by Ottoman Empire a choice of leaders not the people any disadvantage was not result of wider adherence to Islam Costs of Cultural Diversity ▯ Baker does suggest that there are some costs to cultural diversity within particular states however ▯ Many of these costs are associated with ethnic fractionalization ▯ Culturally divided societies tend to underprovide public goods that are required for economic growth ▯ Stereotype threat: idea that awareness of stereotypes about particular groups make members of those groups conform to stereotypes in official situations Ethnopolitics and Nationalism ▯ Differences among ethnic ethnopolitical and national identities ▯ Different types of relationships among groups having these identities in countries of the developing world ▯ They are different and only sometimes closely related (ethnicity and nationality) ▯ Both are socially constructed identities subject to change ▯ Ethnicity is politicized only sometimes nationalist is inherently political ▯ Ethnic identities ▯ Constructed when some people self-consciously distinguished themselves from others based on perceived common ▯ Relative strength of ethnopolitical identities in comparison to other political identities debated, but varies across the developing world ▯ Common history of European colonialism many ethnic identities both came into existence and were politicized as a result of colonialism and decolonization ▯ British politicized identities intensively and intentionally often granting political autonomy to certain ethnicities within their territories ▯ Sub-saharan Africa at independence inherited a distinctive ethnic morphology with three defining features ▯ Very few ethnopolitical groups comprise an outright majority in a country ▯ Limited cultural differences among groups in most countries ▯ Territorial concentration of many ethnic groups that facilitates their construction as cohesive units for collective political action ▯ This combined with pos-colonial regimes utilizing instrumental ethnopolitical demands, fosters communal contention ▯ ▯
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