Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience notes
Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience notes 2031
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Janssen on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2031 at University of Denver taught by Rossi, Christy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience in Psychlogy at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Cognitive Neuroscience 01282016 Cognitive Neuroscience 0 Cognitive Neuroscience the study of how brains produce complex thoughts behaviors Relationship between brain and behavior 2 aims of cognitive neuroscience I 1 To understand normal intact cognitive process I 2 To understand what s happening when something goes awry Chapter 1 Neuroanatomy 0 Building blocks of the Nervous System 0 Neurons cells that carry information from one place to another I Cell body contains the nucleus and other cellular machinery necessary for cell functioning I Axon carries information from the cell body to the synapse I Dendritic tree receives input from other cells 0 Glia serve as support cells do not convey information like neurons do but have many functions I Modify the environment for neurons I Remove dead neurons I Myelinate axons making the myelin sheath wraps around some axons protection I Help maintain the blood brain barrier I Glial cells D Astrocyte U Oligodendrocyte 0 Gray matter and white matter I White matter I Myelination from glial cells I Gray matter I Neuronal cell bodies I CNS and PNS 0 Central Nervous System Brain and Spinal Cord 0 Peripheral Nervous System All Neural tissue beyond the CNS I Sensory neurons throughout the body I Neurons that send information to muscles motor 0 Terms to describe locations in the nervous system I Anterior amp Posterior I Anterior front U Posterior back I Superior amp Inferior I Superior top H Inferior bottom I Rostral amp Caudal U Rostral toward the fronthead I Caudal toward the backtail I Dorsal amp Ventral I Dorsal above toward the back D Ventral below toward the belly Medial amp Lateral U Medial towards the middle gt U Lateralaway from the middle I gt Proximal amp Distal U Proximalnear the middle of the body U Distalfar the middle of the body Contralateral Ipsilateral U Ipsilateral same side 0 Contralateral opposite side Unilateral Bilateral U Bilateral both sides of the brain U Unilateral one side of the brain Left and Right Hemispheres Planes of the brain U Coronal front and back 0 Brain is separated front from back 0 Ear muff orientation U Horizontal or Axial top and bottom 0 Brain is separated top from bottom 0 Sweat band orientation I Sagittal left and right 0 Brain is separated left from right 0 Middle of brain is called Medial or Midsagittal 0 Major Subdivisions of the CNS 0 Ventricles I Fluid filled spaces that contain Cerebrospinal uid CSF I Clear uid I Lateral ventricles U Most prominent U Left and right separated by tissue U Think of these as 1st and 2nd ventricles I 3 ventricle I Situated at midline between left and right thalamus I 4th ventricle U Diamond shaped U Behind pons and medulla O Spinal Cord I Brings input from peripheral sensory organs to brain I Sends motor information out 0 Medulla I Controls vital functions including breathing and heart rate I Contains most of the cell bodies of the cranial nerves Cerebellum I Roles in movement balance posture control and some cognition Pons I Role in eye movements balance Midbrain I Role in processing visual and auditory information I Superior colliculus visual U Inferior colliculus auditory Brainstem I 3 brain structures combined make up the brain stem U Medulla U Pons I Midbrain Thalamus I Major Relay Station for sensory information incoming and motor information outgoing Hypothalamus I Helps body maintain a steady state U Feeding drinking body temperature regulation secretes hormones ight or fight reactions Diencephalon I 2 brain structures combined make the Diencephalon U Thalamus U Hypothalamus Subcortical Systems 0 Structures lying beneath the cortex that act together to serve a particular fashion I Basal Ganglia motor control B Caudate D Putamen D And the Globus Pallidus U Help control voluntary movement can increase or decrease motor control I Limbic System Memories emotions U Amygdala 0 Almond aggression fear U Hypothalamus 0 Maintaining the body s steady state 0 Cingulate CorteX 0 Pain perception U Anterior Thalamus 0 Relay station E Mammillary Body 0 Associated with amnesia U Hippocampus 0 Memory 0 Cerebral CorteX the bumps and grooves on the surface of the brain 0 Each convolution or bump is a gyrus 0 Each valley between bumps is a sulcus O A very deep sulcus is a fissure O 3 key fissuressulci that divide the brain I Longitudinal fissure I Divides brain into L and R hemisphere U Also called the interhemispheric fissure I Central sulcus U Divides front from back I Sylvian fissure Cytoarchitectural divisions Brodmann s areas I Primary motor corteX U Lies immediately anterior to the central sulcus directly controls motor output U Different parts of the motor corteX control different parts of the body I Primary sensory corte somatosensory corteX I Respond to touch information detecting temperature pain I Primary visual corteX I Sense of vision I Primary auditory cortex 0 I Sense of hearing I Olfactory and gustatory cortex I Sense of smell and taste 0 Gustatory Cortex I Insular cortex I Sense of taste 0 Association areas 0 Combine information from various areas of the brain 0 Multimodal further processing of sensory information I Frontal Lobe U Function Planning guidance and evaluative behavior U Example of frontal lobe damage behavioral changes Phineas Gage I Parietal Lobe U Function integrates information across sensory modalities U Example of parietal lobe damage Hemineglect ignoring one side of space I Temporal Lobe U Functions memory visual item recognition emotion and auditory processing U Example of temporal lobe damage inability to recognize common objects Lesion Studies 0 Making observations of somebody who has brain damage 0 Types of stroke O Hemorrhagic I Blood leaks into brain tissue 0 Ischemic I Clot stops blood supply to an area of the brain Single case studies 0 Example the patient known as HM Group studies 0 Mass Action vs Localization of Function 0 The idea that there are functional subsystems located in specific regions of the brain is known as localization of function and is contrasted to the previously held belief that all pieces of the brain contribute to all mental functions known as mass action Whole brain Mass action Specific region Localization of function Double dissociation o A method for determining whether 2 cognitive functions are independent of one another If they are we would eXpect that one lesion causes a disruption in Cognitive Function A but not Cognitive Function B while a different lesion causes a disruption in Cognitive Function B but not A Limitations of Lesion Method 0 Variability across lesions I Size exact location 0 Variability across patients with lesions Examining Anatomy Computerized AXial Tomography CAT scanning 0 Density of Brain structures determined with X rays 0 Anyone can get a CAT scan 0 Lifetime number should be limited radiology I Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI 0 Uses magnetic Fields 0 Safer than CAT scans 0 Not everyone can have an MRI I If they have any metal or magnetic material in their body 0 Diffusion Tensor Imaging I Allows bundles of axons to be visualized Coronal Horizontal i39ttal Assessing Physiological Function I Functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI O Detects changes in blood ow to particular areas of the brain I Q brain activityL I Q blood ow Q oxygen L I Q signal 0 Good spatial resolution 0 Noninvasive 0 Poor temporal resolution I Positron emission tomography PET O Radioactive substance injected as it becomes stable light is produced and measured O Detects amount of a substance being used by different brain regions I Glucose activity I Specific neurotransmitters 0 Single cell recording 0 Electrode placed or in cell and electrical activity recorded 0 Electroencephalography EEG O Electrodes placed on scalp record brain activity 0 Recordings represent activity of many neurons 0 Sleep patterns excess activity as in seizures 0 Event related potentials ERPs 0 Similar to EEGs o In reference to a specific event 0 Magnetoencephalography MEG 0 Similar to ERPs but recording magnetic potentials o Localizing source of epileptic activity 0 Locating areas to avoid during surgery Neuropsychological Assessments 0 What is the purpose of neuropsychological assessment 0 Measure cognition and behavior to infer brain function 0 Understand eXplain and predict behavior 0 What different areas of functioning can be assessed 0 General Cognitive Ability IQ I Wechsler Series of Intelligence Scales I WAIS adults 18 I WISC children 6 16 B WPPSI preschool children 25 7 I Differential Ability Scales DAS I Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test UNIT I Woodcock Johnson Test of Cognitive Abilities 0 Specific Domains of neuropsychological functioning I The Reitan Wolfson model of Neuropsychological Functioning U Input Perception 0 Speech Sounds Perception Test 0 Tactile Perception Test I Attention Concentration Memory 0 Digit Span 352 0 Trail Making Test U Language Skills 0 Ability to understand spoken language 0 Defining words 0 Phonological processing speech sounds in reading I Visuospatial Skills 0 Block Design 0 Rey Osterreith Complex Figure 0 Concept Formation Reasoning Logical Analysis 0 Matrix Reasoning 0 Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 0 Output Motor Skill 0 Fine Motor skills 0 Grooved pegs 0 Finger tapping test 0 Gross motor skills 0 Throwingcatching Draganski Article 0 Background 0 Experiences changes brain on a cellular level 0 New neurons not born in most regions of the brain in adulthood 0 Can experience learning alter the brain at an anatomical level 0 Methods 0 21 females 3 males 0 Mean age 22 years 0 Naive to juggling 0 Baseline MRI scan 1 000 O 3 months to learn 3 ball cascade MRI scan 2 MRI scan 3 months later 3 Volume of different brain regions calculated after each scan 0 Results 0 O In the longitudinal analysis the juggler group demonstrated a significant 44 df Plt005 transient bilateral eXpansion in grey matter in the mid temporal area hMTVS and in the left posterior intraparietal sulcus between the first and the second scans No change in the non jugglers 0 Conclusions 0 O Increases in grey matter due to eXperience are evident at MRI level The change is not permanent grey matter still larger 3 months later but not as large as at scan 2 Hemispheric Specialization 0 Differences in processing between the left and right hemispheres of the brain Structural Level 0 Overall Brain Organization 0 0 Left frontal region is narrower Right frontal region extends further forward 0 Sylvian Fissure 0 Turns upward on right side of the brain 0 Planum Temporale O O Involved in processing of sounds Larger on the left side of the brain Functional Level 0 Broca s area 0 Language production impaired 0 Left side of the brain 0 Wernicke s area 0 Language comprehension impaired 0 Left side of the brain I General differences between hemispheres 0 Left Hemisphere I Linguistic symbolic information I Local details U Small details in the picture 0 Right Hemisphere I Visuospatial processing I Global structure U Big picture 3 types of individuals give evidence for Hemispheric Specialization 0 l Neurologically Intact Individuals 0 Figure 47 Ipsilateral suppression in the dichotic listening technique I Syllable presented to right ear is reported more accurately I Sent to the left hemisphere which is specialized in language 0 Figure 412 The rapid transfer of sensory information from one hemisphere to the other I Response on the contralateral side first 0 2 Individuals who have lateralized lesions 0 Figure 48 Hemispheric differences between global and local processing 0 3 Individual s with split brain syndrome 0 Figure 45 Examining the competency of each hemisphere in a patient with split brain syndrome I Verbal response favors what was on the right side I Pointing with left hand response based on what was seen by Right visual corteX left visual field 0 Figure 118 Information from our left visual field the left half of our visual world projects exclusively to the right primary visual corteX Individual differences in brain organization 0 Handedness O 0 Gender 0 Developmental aspects of hemispheric specialization 0 Anatomical differences can be observed before birth 0 Functional differences have been observed by 1 week of age Equipotentiality and Plasticity 0 Equipotentiality 0 Ability for both hemispheres to acquire a function 0 Plasticity 0 Ability for brain to change function I When damage occurs outcome is better for younger individuals Motor Control I How do motor movements occur 0 Motor neurons I The neurons that innervate muscle 0 Muscles I Are composed of muscle fibers can be contracted or relaxed O The neuromuscular junction NMJ I Synapse between the terminal of a motor neuron and a muscle fiber I Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter 0 Motor unit a motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates make up a motor unit I How many muscle fibers does a motor neuron control B Eye lt 10 fibers I Calf gt1000 fibers 0 Linking The Brain To Muscle 0 Motor tracts 2 major sets of pathways link the brain to muscle I Lateral corticospinal tract D Cell bodes in the corteX I Tract crosses to opposite side in medulla I Control of distal muscles I Medial tract I Projects contralaterally and Ipsilaterally I Control of trunk and proximal muscles Cortical Regions involved in Muscle control 0 Primary motor corteX I Provides the signal to drive motor neurons to make muscles move 0 Premotor corteX I Mirror neurons that fire when an action is performed and when observing another individual producing the same action 0 Anterior cingulate corteX ACC I Links motor and cognitive behavior 0 Supplementary motor area SMA I Helps create a Motor Program I An abstract plan of the type sequence of actions to be carried out 0 Parietal corteX I Integration of sensory information and movement I Suitcase example 0 Planning to pick up a heavy suitcase and its actually light so you are able to quickly change the amount of force to pick up the suitcase Circuits that modify motor output 0 Cerebellum I 3 main subdivisions I Vestibulocerebellum 0 Receives input from vestibular nuclei in brainstem role in balance I Spinocerebellum 0 Receives input from spinal cord affects trunk muscles I Cerebrocerebellum 0 Receives input from cortex regulation of highly skilled movement I Damage to the cerebellum U Difficulty learning new movements U Action tremorintention tremor jerky motion during an act U Difficulties coordinating multi joint movements 0 Basal Ganglia I Subcortical system that modulates the activation of the cortex I Direct Pathway and Indirect Pathway U Direct Pathway 0 The thalamus generally excites the cortex to an extent 0 Cortex excites the caudateputamen 0 The Globus pallidus inhibits the thalamus less than is normally would 0 Result excitation of cortex facilitates the current action U Indirect pathway 0 Cortex excites the caudateputamen 0 Caudate putamen inhibit the Globus pallidus 0 Decreases inhibition of Subthalamic nucleus 0 Subthalamic nucleus excites the Globus pallidus which inhibits the thalamus 0 Result inhibition of cortex important for suppressing unwanted movement I Components El El El El El Caudate where input is received from cortex Putamen also receives input from the cortex Globus Pallidus sends information to the thalamus Substantia Nigra Subthalamic Nucleus I Damage to the basal ganglia El El El El Motor Disorders Akinesia inability to initiate spontaneous movements Bradykinesia Slowness of movement Hyperkinesia undesired movements Tremors o Parkinson s Disease I Loss of dopamine producing neurons in the Substantia Nigra I Resting tremor rigidity head down posture slow shuf ing movements Bradykinesia I The case of the frozen addicts El Advanced Parkinson s disease symptoms in young people they were conscious but immobile unable to speak frozen facial expressions extreme rigidity Toxin from making synthetic heroin MPTP destroyed cells in Substantia Nigra U L Dopa improved symptoms 0 Huntington s Disease I Single gene disorder dominant I Symptom onset later in life I Excessive movements hyperkinesia of limbs and face contorted postures I Loss of cells in indirect pathway Early Perceptual Processing Visual 0 The retina O Photoreceptors I Transduce light to a chemical signal U Rods 0 Pigment is not sensitive to color I More dense in periphery I Cones 0 Pigments that are sensitive to color I More dense at center of retina fovea O Ganglion Cells I Retinal ganglion cells I Output cells of retina I M ganglion cells 0 Course patterns motions I P ganglion cells 0 Color information 0 Receptive Fields the specific region of visual space in which light will affect the call s firing rate I Each photoreceptor has its own receptive field I A particular cell responds or is sensitive 0 Between the Retina and Visual CorteX O Optic Nerve Optic Chiasm and Optic Tract 0 Information ows I Retina gt I LGN lateral geniculate nucleus of thalamus gt I Primary visual corteX striate corteX I This is the Geniculostriate pathway 0 In the left eye I Light from the left visual corteX will fall on the nasal half of the retina In the right eye I Light from the left visual field will fall on temporal half of the retina I Information from the nasal half of the retina crosses sides at the optic chasm I Information from the temporal half of the retina stays on the same side 0 Net Result I Information from L visual field projects to R side of the brain 0 0 Information is highly organized along the way I Retina U Photoreceptors I Rods and Cones U RGCs I Retinal Ganglion Cells 0 M and P I Lateral Geniculate Nucleus LGN of thalamus I Different layers receive different types of information from RGC s I Primary Visual CorteX V1 BA17 striate corteX U Simple cells 0 Fires in response to bars of light in certain orientations and positions B Complex cells I Respond to orientations regardless of position U Hyper complex cells I Respond to cells of certain lengths I If a bar of light is too long for a particular cell response from cell decreases important for detecting corners I Retiontopic map Visual information maps onto the brain in the same spatial layout as Visual information reaching the retina I This is the Geniculostriate pathway I Consciously perceiVing 90 I TectopulVinar pathway I Not consciously perceiving I Fast I Sensitive to motion I New objects in visual field 0 Pathway I Retina gt I Superior colliculus gt I Pulvinar nucleus in thalamus cortical areas governing eye and head movements brainstem areas involved in eye movements Early Perceptual Processing Auditory 0 What is sound 0 Alternating increases and decreases in air pressure 0 Anatomy of the ear 0 Outer ear I Function funnel sound waves to middle ear I Parts U Pinna outer flap 0 Collects sound waves U Auditory canal 0 Sends the sound waves to the tympanic membrane U Tympanic Membrane 0 Eardrum 0 Middle ear I Tympanic membrane pushes against the ossicles 3 tiny bones U Malleus U Incus I Stapes I This converts air pressure waves into motion 0 Inner ear uid filled I Cochlea Contains hair cells D Basilar membrane has Tonotopic organization 0 Different regions of the structure are organized to respond to different sounds and tones 0 Narrow at base responds to high frequency sounds I Wider at apeX responds to low frequency sounds I Organ of Corti I Sits on top on Basilar membrane U Hair cells 0 Hair cells project from basilar membrane into uid of inner ear 0 Inner hair cells 0 Transduce the signal 0 When they move there is a change in the rate of neurotransmitter release 0 Outer hair cells I Semicircular canals U Important for balance 0 Ear to brain 0 Auditory pathway from cochlea to cortex I From Cochlea gt I Medulla cochlear nucleus to superior olive gt I Inferior colliculus midbrain gt I Medial Geniculate Nucleus MGN of thalamus gt I Auditory cortex 0 Primary auditory corteX I Tonotopic organization U Different parts of the structure will respond to different sound frequencies 0 Properties of sound What aspects of sound signals need to be conveyed to brain 0 Loudness I Intensity of Signal increased intensity increased compression of air 0 Frequency I Of times per second a sound wave reaches compression I Detected at the basilar membrane maintained based on which axon of the auditory nerve is activated 0 Location I Inter aural Level Difference mostly due to head shadow I Inter aural timing difference which ear receives information first
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