Intro to Human Nutrition Chapters 1 and 2 notes
Intro to Human Nutrition Chapters 1 and 2 notes NHM 101-001
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adriana McGhee on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 101-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Denise DeSalvo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 171 views. For similar materials see Intro To Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
NHM Lecture 1 (1-25-16)/ Chapter 1 FOOD Food is products from plants and animals When taken into the body, it yields energy and nutrients in order to grow Many factors influence someone’s food choices What influences your food choices? (ex: income, taste, convenience, culture, the clean up) FACTORS INFLUENCING FOOD CHOICES Preferences Habits Culture/ethnicity social interaction availability income positive and negative food experiences emotions values body weight/image health benefits THE BODY NEEDS ENERGY AND NUTRIENTS Energy o energy in food is chemical energy Nutrients o chemical substances obtained from food o used in the body to provide energy and support growth, maintenance, and repair of tissues o may also reduce risk of certain diseases No single food that contains all that we need SIX MAJOR CLASSES OF NUTRIENTS Carbs Protein Lipids (fats) Vitamins Minerals Water CATEGORIES OF NUTRIENTS Essential nutrients: must be obtained from foods- there are about 40 o needed from outside of the body Nonessential nutrients: can be synthesized from body Non-nutrients: compounds that do not fit into the 6 classes of nutrients o phytochemicals- non-nutrient compounds in plants that have biological activity in the body (found in fruits and veggies that are bright blue) ENERGY YIELDING NUTRIENTS Commonly referred to as macronutrients Carbs Proteins Lipids VITAMINS AND MINERALS Micronutrients Vitamins and minerals don’t provide energy o However, they may assist with energy release Vitamins are organic and complex and can’t be destroyed (why veggies cant be overcooked in high temperatures) Minerals are inorganic and indestructible o they can bind and hinder absorption MEASURING ENERGY IN FOOD Calories: a measure of heat energy used to measure energy Food energy is measured in kilocalories (1,000 cals = 1 kcal) 1 kilocalories: energy required to raise 1 kg water 1 degree celsius calories are useful in comparing the energy available from different food when we decide what food to eat carbs yield 4 calories per unit ENERGY FROM FOOD carbs = 4 kcal/gm DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES estimated average requirements (EAR) o average daily amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific function in half the healthy people of a given age and gender group recommended dietary allowances (RDA) o amount of nutrient needed to meet the requirements of almost all healthy individuals adequate intake (AI) o average daily amount of a nutrient needed to meet the requirements of almost all healthy individuals (97-98%) o serves as goal intake for individuals tolerable upper intake level (UL) o highest level of daily nutrient intake that is unlikely to have adverse health affects ESTABLISHING ENERGY RECOMMENDATIONS estimated energy requirement (EER) average dietary energy intake that maintains energy balance and good health o based on age, gender, weight, height, and physical activity acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDR) o 45-65% kcal from carbohydrate o 20-35% kcal from fat o 10-35% kcal from protein USING NUTRIENT RECOMMENDATIONS DRI’s apply to most healthy people Recommendations are not minimal requirements They may not meet all individual needs Nutrient goals should be met with food Recommendations apply to average daily intakes o You may not meet the nutrient recs everyday Chapter 2 Lecture (1-26-16)/ Chapter 2 NUTRIENT DENSITY most nutrients for the least food energy low nutrient density foods Moderation o Low in fats and sugars Variety o Among and within food groups DIETARY GUIDELINES FOR AMERICANS Evidence based advice o Maintain a healthy weight o Reduce risk of chronic disease o Promote overall health Reviewed and revised every 5 years MAJOR TOPIC AREAS Major topic areas of dietary guidelines for Americans Balancing kcalories to manage weight foods and food components to reduce Food and nutrients to increase Building healthy eating patterns DIET PLANNING GUIDES Incorporate both tools and knowledge to plan an ideal diet USDA food patterns Five major food groups o Fruits, veggies, grains, protein foods, milk, and milk product Recommended daily amounts for each group USDA FOOD PATTERNS: RECOMMENDED AMOUNTS 1600 kcal 1800 kcal 2000 kcal 2200 kcal 2400 kcal 2600 kcal 28 3000 kcal 00 kca l 2½ Fruits 1½ c 1½ c 2 c 2c 2c 2c 2½ c c 3½ Vegetables 2c 2½ c 2½ c 3 c 3 c 3½ c 4c c 10 Grains 5 oz 6oz 6oz 7oz 8oz 9oz 10 oz oz Protein foods 5 oz 5 oz 5½ oz 6oz 6½ oz 6½ oz 7oz 7oz Milk and milk 3c 3c 3 c 3c 3c 3c 3c 3c products 8 Oils 5 tsp 5 tsp 6 tsp 6 tsp 7 tsp 8 tsp 10 tsp tsp Discretionary 395 121 kcal 161 kcal 258 kcal 266 kcal 330 kcal 362 kcal 459 kcal kcalories kcal NOTABLE NUTRIENTS Legumes o Both a vegetable and protein group Nutrient-dense choices Discretionary kcalories o Difference between kcalories needed to supply nutrients and those to maintain weight o Added sugars and fats DISCRETIONARY KCALORIES IN A 2,000 CAL DIET USDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits contribute folate, vitamin A. vitamin C, potassium, and fiber. Consume a variety of fruits, and choose whole or cut-up fruits more often 1 c fruit = than fruit juice. 1 c fresh, Apples, apricots, avocados, bananas, blueberries, cantaloupe, cherries, grapefruit, frozen, or grapes, guava, honeydew, kiwi, mango, nectarines, oranges, papaya, peaches, canned fruit pears, pineapples, plums, raspberries, strawberries, tangerines, watermelon; dried ½ c dried fruit fruit (dates, figs, prunes, raisins); 100% fruit juices 1 c 100% fruit Limit these fruits that contain solid fats and/or added sugars: juice Canned or frozen fruit in syrup; juices, punches, aides, and fruit drinks with added sugars; fried plantains Vegetables contribute folate, vitamin A, vitamin C. vitamin K, vitamin E, magnesium, potassium, and fiber. Consume a variety of vegetables each day, and choose from all five subgroups several times a week. Dark-green vegetables: Broccoli and leafy greens such as arugula, beet greens, bok 1 c vegetables choy, collard greens, kale, mustard greens, romaine lettuce, spinach, turnip greens, = watercress 1 c cut-up raw Red and orange vegetables: Carrots, carrot juice, pumpkin, red bell peppers, sweet or cooked potatoes, tomatoes, tomato juice, vegetable juice, winter squash (acorn, butternut) vegetables Legumes: Black beans, black-eyed peas, garbanzo beans (chickpeas), kidney beans, 1 c cooked lentils, navy beans, pinto beans, soybeans and soy products such as tofu, split peas, legumes white beans 1 c vegetable juice Starchy vegetables: Cassava, corn, green peas, hominy, lima beans, potatoes Other vegetables: Artichokes, asparagus, bamboo shoots, bean sprouts, beets, 2 c raw, leafy brussels sprouts, cabbages, cactus, cauliflower, celery, cucumbers, eggplant, green greens beans, green bell peppers, iceberg lettuce, mushrooms, okra, onions, seaweed, snow peas, zucchini Limit these vegetables that contain solid fats and/or added sugars: Baked beans, candied sweet potatoes, coleslaw, french fries, potato salad, refried beans, scalloped potatoes, tempura vegetables USDA GRAINS AND PROTEINS Grains contribute folate, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, iron, magnesium, selenium, and fiber. Make most (at least half) of the grain selections whole grains. Whole grains: amaranth, barley, brown rice, buckwheat, bulgur, cornmeal. millet, oats, quinoa. rye. wheat, wild rice and whole- grain products such as breads, cereals, crackers, and pastas; popcorn 1 oz grains = Enriched refined products: bagels, breads, cereals, pastas 1 slice bread (couscous, macaroni, spaghetti), pretzels, white rice, rolls, tortillas ½ c cooked rice, pasta, or cereal Limit these grains that contain solid fats and/or added 1 oz dry pasta or rice sugars: Biscuits, cakes, cookies, cornbread, crackers, croissants, 1 c ready-to-eat cereal doughnuts, fried rice, granola, muffins, pastries, pies, 3 c popped popcorn presweetened cereals, taco shells Protein foods contribute protein, essential fatty acids, niacin, thiamin, vitamin B6, vitamin 12, iron, magnesium, potassium, and zinc. Choose a variety of protein foods from the three subgroups, including seafood in place of meat or poultry twice a week. Seafood: Fish (catfish, cod, flounder, haddock, halibut, herring, 1 oz protein foods = mackerel, pollock, salmon, sardines, sea bass, snapper, trout, 1 oz cooked lean meat, poultry, or tuna), shellfish (clams, crab, lobster, mussels, oysters, scallops, seafood 1 egg shrimp) Meats, poultry, eggs: Lean or low-fat meats (fat-trimmed beet, ¼ c cooked legumes or tofu game, ham, lamb, pork, veal), poultry (no skin), eggs 1 tbs peanut butter Nuts, seeds, soy products: Unsalted nuts (almonds, cashews, ½ oz nuts or seeds filberts, pecans, pistachios, walnuts), seeds (flaxseeds, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds), legumes, soy products (textured vegetable protein, tofu. tempeh), peanut butter, peanuts Limit these protein foods that contain solid fats and/or added sugars: Bacon; baked beans; fried meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, or tofu; refried beans; ground beef; hot dogs: luncheon meats; marbled steaks; poultry with skin; sausages; spare ribs USDA MILK, MILK PRODUCTS AND OILS 1 c milk or Milk and milk products contribute protein, riboflavin, vitamin B , calcium, potassium, 12 milk and, when fortified, vitamin A and vitamin D. product= Make fat-free or low-fat choices. Choose other calcium-rich foods if you don't consume 1 c milk, milk. yogurt, or Fat-free or 1% low-fat milk and fat-free or 1% low-fat milk products such as buttermilk, fortified cheeses, cottage cheese, yogurt: fat-free fortified soy milk soy milk Limit these milk products that contain solid fats and/or added sugars: 1½ oz 2% reduced-fat milk and whole milk; 2% reduced-fat and whole-milk products such as natural cheeses, cottage cheese, and yogurt; flavored milk with added sugars such as chocolate cheese milk, custard, frozen yogurt, ice cream, milk shakes, pudding, sherbet; fortified soy milk 2 oz processed cheese 1 tsp oil = Oils are not a food group, but are featured here because they contribute vitamin E and 1 tsp essential fatty acids. vegetable Use oils instead of solid fats, when possible. oil Liquid vegetable oils such as canola. corn, flaxseed, nut, olive, peanut, safflower, sesame, 1 tsp soft soybean, sunflower oils; mayonnaise, oil-based salad dressing, soft trans-free margarine; margarine unsaturated oils that occur naturally in foods such as avocados, fatty fish, nuts, olives, 1 tbs low- seeds (flaxseeds, sesame seeds), shellfish fat Limit these solid fats: mayonnais Butter, animal fats, stick margarine, shortening e 2 tbs light salad dressing SERVING EQUIVALENTS Fruits, veggies, and milk measured in cups Grains and protein foods measured in ounces (oz) Ethnic food choices Vegetarian food guide Mixture of foods (ex: casseroles) RECOMMENDED AND ACTUAL INTAKES COMPARED EXCHANGE LISTS Help in achieving kcalorie control and moderation Sorting foods EXCHANGE LISTS NOW FOOD LISTS name changed from exchange lists to food lists for diabetic meal planning foods grouped by energy and nutrient content assists with kcalorie control and nutrient consistency another diet method PUTTING THE PLAN INTO ACTION familiarize yourself with all food groups -assign food groups to meals from guidelines to groceries make small improvements over time processed food o disadvantages: in some cases there’s more fats, not as nutrient dense, sometimes not as healthy for you o advantages: in cases such as prewashed salad mixes its still good for you, some cereals are processed but can still be part of a healthy diet DIET PLANNING USING THE 2000 CAL USDA FOOD PATTERN Food Group Amounts Breakfa Lunch Snack Dinner Snack st Fruits 2 c ½ c ½ c 1 c Vegetables 2½ c 1 c 1½ c Grains 6 oz 1 oz 2oz ½ oz 2 oz ½ oz Protein foods 5½ oz 2 oz 3½ oz Milk and milk products 3c 1 c 1 c 1 c Oils 6 tsp 1½ tsp 4 tsp GROCERY SHOPPING Grains o Whole grains (rice, quinoa, oats, pastas, bread, barley) Vegetables o Fresh vs. canned (some canned foods have high sodium content) Fruits o Make sure if you buy canned that the fruit is in 100% of its own fruit juice o Fresh Proteins FOOD LABELS Food chains are now required to put calories on all menu food items Product not required to have food labels INGREDIENT LIST Descending order of predominance by weight Nutrition facts panel o Serving sizes established by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) o Adjust calculations according to amount consumed DAILY VALUES Expressed as % Based on 2000 calories per day o Need varies depending on age, activity, other factors Nutrient claims FRONT OF PACKAGE LABELS Simpler than food labels Printed on front of package CLAIMS ON LABELS Nutrient claims o Ex: chicken broth label saying light and fat free on the front Health claims o An oatmeal box saying it can reduce chlosterol Structure and function claims o Yogurt saying it’s a probiotic LABEL DEFINITIONS Fat free o Less than 0.5 grams of fat Low fat o Three grams or less of fat Trans fat free o Less than 0.5 grams of trans fat Light or lite o 1/3 fewer calories Organic
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