Abnormal Psych Chapter 2
Abnormal Psych Chapter 2 2201
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tamika White on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2201 at Temple University taught by Deborah Drabick in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Psychopathology in Psychlogy at Temple University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Chapter 2 Abnormal Psychology Paradigm- set of shared assumptions that include both the substance of a theory and the beliefs about how scientists should collect data and test hypotheses There are 4 traditional paradigm of abnormal behavior: The Biological Paradigm – looks for biological abnormalities that cause abnormal behaviors Example: brain disease, brain disorders, and genetic disorders History: Broad Medical Method: The breakthrough began when it was discovered The 1 step – accurate diagnosis people with general paresis (general paralysis) was 2 step identifying a specific biological cause caused by syphilis 3 step treatments that prevent, eliminate, or alter Penicillin (the first antibiotic) virtually eliminatthe cause paresis after World War 2 This discovery promoted hopes that scientist could use similar methods to uncover causes for mental disorders (Only specific bio causes have been identified for a few cognitive disorders + about ½ the cases of intellectual disability) The Psychodynamic paradigm an outgrowth of Sigmund Freud’s theories, asserts that abnormal behavior is caused by unconscious mental conflicts Is the revisions of Freud’s own theory Psychoanalytic theory Freud: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO, DEFENSE MECHANISMS The Cognitive –Behavioral Paradigm: Cognitivebehavioral paradigm – views abnormal behavior as the product of learning William Wundt Ivan Pavlov – o Classical conditioning learning though association and involves 4 key components: o Unconditioned stimulus that produces the unconditioned response. A conditioned stimulus that produces the conditioned response. Extinction gradually occurs once a conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus B.F. Skinner – o Operant conditioning asserts that behavior is a function of it’s consequences o Positive reinforcement the onset of a stimulus increases the frequency of the behavior (Paid for work) o Negative reinforcement cessation of a stimulus increases the frequency of behavior (Give into nagging friend) o Punishment – onset of stimulus decreases the frequency of behavior (quiet after teacher’s scolding) o Extinction results from ending the association between a behavior and it’s consequences as in classical conditioning J.B. Watson – o Argued observable behavior was the only appropriate subject matter for the science of psychology, he argued thoughts and emotions cannot be measured objectively The Humanistic Paradigm behavior is the product of free will o We choose, control and are responsible for our actions o It’s impossible to determine the cause of abnormal behavior because free will isn’t predictable o Explicitly positive view of human nature o Blame abnormal behavior on society, not the individual The problems with the Paradigms: Can direct and misdirect scientists The 4 paradigms make assumptions about the causes of abnormal psychology Etiology (the cause) Most abnormal behaviors is unknown. Biological - Overemphasize medical model (the analogy between physical and psychological illness Psychodynamic – unyielding in focusing on childhood experiences, unconscious conflicts and interpreting Freud’s literally Cognitive –behavioral – overlooks the rich social and biological context Humanistic – to antiscientific (Although all psychologist are humanistic in a sense that their ultimate goal is to improve the patient) Has weaknesses and strengths the trick is to knowing when to use a different approach Most psychological scientists suspect that abnormal behavior is caused by Biological, psychological and social factors There are different levels of analysis for psychological problems Biopsychosocial model- effort to integrate all the broad contributions to mental disorder Systems Theory Systems theory-An integrative approach to science, one that embraces not only the importance of multiple contributions to causality but also to their interdependence Includes biopsychosocial model and elements of each of the 4 paradigms Holism – the idea that the whole is more than the sum of its parts Views mental illness in the contexts of an individuals personality, including their strengths, and more broadly in the interpersonal social contexts Contrasts with: Reductionism- attempts to understand problems by focusing on the smaller and smaller units, suggesting that the smallest (or most molecular) account is the “true” case Causality Equifinality (Multiple pathways)– there are many routes to the same destination (or disorder) - People might come from entirely different backgrounds and end up with the same disorder Multifinality- The same event can lead to different outcomes -People can come from the same environment and end up with different disorders Diathesis-stress model- common way of summarizing multiple influences of abnormal behavior Suggests that disorders develop when stress is added on top of a predisposition Diathesis- a predisposition toward developing disorders Stress- difficult experiences Risk factor – refers to circumstances that are correlated with an increased likelihood of a disorder but do not necessarily cause it Reciprocal Causality – Where cause and effect is sometimes a matter of perspective Individuals influence their context, and their context influence individuals “Do trouble relationships cause disorders or do trouble make people’s relationship difficult?’” Development Psychopathology- an approach to abnormal psychology that emphases change over time Recognizes the importance of development norms Premorbid history- a pattern of behavior that precedes the onset of the disorder Prognosis- a disorder that may have a predictable course for the future Biological Factors Neurons- Billions of tiny nerve cells form basic building blocks of the brain Have 4 Major anatomic components: The Soma (Cell Largest part, most of it’s metabolism + Body) maintenance are controlled and performed The Dendrites Branch our from the soma, primary function receive messages from other cells The axon The trunk of the neuron, messages are transmitted do it to other cells Axon Terminal End of axon, where messages are sent to other neurons. Contains vesicles containing neurotransmitters DendritesCell body axonaxon terminal Synapse Receptors Synapse- small gap filled with fluid, what separates the axon terminal from other cells Neurotransmitters, (Chemical substances) Ex: Serotonin and Dopamine - Released into the synapse received by the receptors- (on the dendrites or soma of another neuron) Different receptor sites are more or less responsive to particular neurotransmitters and particularly important in abnormal psych Neuromodulators- chemicals that can influence communication among many neurons by affecting the functions of neurotransmitters Scientists have found neurotransmitter disruptions in some people with mental disorders A biochemical difference does not mean that problems are cause by a chemical imbalance The Brain: Hindbrain- (Medulla, Pons, Cerebellum) - Basic bodily functions - Few abnormal behaviors are linked here Midbrain- Motor activities, especially those related to fighting and sex - Reticular activating system-regulates waking and sleeping - Damage causes extreme disturbances in sexual behavior, aggression and sleep but these typically result from brain trauma and tumors Forebrain: Evolved most recently, site for sensory, emotional and cognitive processes, largest part of the brain Limbic system – makes up several Hypothalamus- controls basic bio structures that regulate emotion urges such as eating, sleeping, and learning, links the midbrain and drinking and sexual activity hindbrain to the forebrain (Automatic nervous system) Thalamus – integrates sensory information from both sense organs and higher brain structures Cerebral Hemispheres: Cerebral cortex – uneven surface Lateralized- one hemisphere serves of forebrain – controls a specialized role as the site of sophisticated memory, sensory, specific cognitive functions and motor functions: Divided into Left: language and related functions 4 Lobes: Right: spatial organization and Frontal lobe – reasoning, planning, analysis speech, and movement, emotion Corpus callosum- connects both Parietal lobe- sensory information, hemispheres spatial reasoning Temporal lobe- sound and smell, Ventricles- 4 connected chambers of processes emotions the forebrain Occipital lobe- visual information (Filled with cerebrospinal fluid, enlarged in some psychological and neurological disorders) Only the most sever mental disorders have clearly been linked to abnormalities in neruoanatomy Psychophysiology- the study of changes in the functioning of the body that results from psychological experience Ex: pounding heart, flushed face, tears, etc. Psychophysiological arousal results from 2 different communication systems w/in the body: The endocrine and Nervous system Endocrine System- collection of glands found at various locations throughout the body - Ovaries, tests, thyroid, pituitary and adrenal glands - Produces responses by releasing hormones into the blood streams - Hormones- chemical substances that affect the functioning of distinct body systems and sometimes act as neuromodulators - Regulates normal development w/ growth + sexual development - Activated by stress helps the body prepare for emergency Certain Abnormalities in the functioning of the endocrine system are known to cause psychological symptoms. Basic Nervous system can be divided into 2 parts: Central Nervous System: (Brain and Spin) + Peripheral Nervous system: connecting tissues that stem from the Central Nervous system Can be divided into 2 categories: Somatic Nervous system- voluntary muscular control Automatic Nervous system- involuntary, regulates various functions of body organs such as heart and stomach, Can be divided into 2 categories: Parasympathetic – slowing of arousal and energy conservation Sympathetic- activities with increased arousal and energy Psychological over arousal and under arousal can contribute to abnormal behavior Ex: over activity: pounding heart, sweaty hands anxiety Behavior Genetics Genes- units of DNA that carry info about heredity, located on Chromosomes Genotype- individuals actual genetic structure Phenotype- the expression of a given genotype -Different genotypes can produce the same phenotype environment can affect phenotype Polygenetic- influenced by multiple genes and the environment -There appear to be multiple genes involved in the risk for different mental disorders Family Incident Studies Probands- index cases - Researchers look for normal or ill probands - If high prevalence for illness is found in a family member of an ill proband this is consistent with genetic causation - However families share environments as well as genes Twin Studies Monozygotic twins- Identical, 100% of genes shared Dizygotic Twins – fraternal, 50% of genes shared Concordance rates – when someone has the same disorder or there free from another disorder Discordant- when a twin has a disorder and the other doesn’t have the disorder -Any differences between concordance rates must be caused by genetics, assuming they have similar environments -High concordances rates points to the influence of shared environments -Low concordances rates point to non-shared environments Adoption studies- -Biological vs. adoptive parents -If concordance rates are higher for biological then genetics play a factor - If concordance rates are higher for adoptive parents then the environment plays a factor Potential problems: Adoption placement can be selective Genes and environment Gene-environment interaction- genetic predispositions and environmental experiences combining to produce more than there separate influences Gene-environment correlation- our experience is correlated with our genetic makeup Ex: Anxious parent give children “anxious” genes and environment Psychological Factors 6 categories: 1) Human nature 2) Temperament 3) Emotion 4) Learning and cognition 5) Our sense of self 6) Human development Human Nature Evolutionary Psychology – application of the principles of evolution to understanding the animal and human mind o Study Species-typical characteristics genetically influenced motivations that people share in common o Seeks to understand how evolution shaped human behavior o Need to form close relationships + competition for dominance Attachment theory -Attachment- early in life, special, selective bonds with their caregivers -Inborn characteristic, a product of natural selection Insecure or anxious attachment- child relationships with parents are a product of inconsistent and unresponsive parenting during the first year of life Can make mistrustful, dependent and rejecting in subsequent relationship patterns that continue into adulthood Disorganized attachment- babies soothe themselves Secure attachment- comfort and love, parent and child being able to relate Temperament Temperament- characteristic styles of relating to the world -How easy you go into the world - Marker of genetics Generally agree it consists of 5 dimensions OCEAN: 1) Openness- Imaginative and curious vs. Shallow and imperceptive 2) Conscientiousness- organized and reliable vs. careless and negligent 3) Extraversion – Active and talkative vs. passive and reserved 4) Agreeableness- trusting and kind vs. hostile and selfish 5) Neuroticism- nervous and moody vs. calm and pleasant Emotions JOY, LOVE, SURPISE ANGER, SADNESS, FEAR Positive emotions and negative emotions Those who could describe their feelings consumed less alcohol than other who could only talk about generally upset or bad feeling Differencing between negative and positive emotions is key Controlled by brain structures that are older in evolutionary terms and more similar to brains found in other animals Emotional systems: - Reactivity – how sensitive you are to the environment - Highly reactive it’s harder for regulation Learning and Cognition Motivations, temperament, and emotions can be modified by some degree, by learning 1. Modeling - learning through imitation Kids learn through imitation 2. Social Cognition- The study of how humans process information about the social world 3.Attribution – Perceived causes, people’s beliefs about cause and effect relationships -How we define ourselves Suggests automatic and distorted perceptions of reality cause people to become depress Sense of Self Identity –an integrated sense of self Multiple relational selves- unique actions and identities linked with different significant relationships Self-control- internal rules for guiding appropriate behavior - Learned through socialization, where parents, teachers and peers use discipline, praise, and their own example to teach children pre-social behavior and set limits on their anti socialization behavior over time the standards are internalized - Self-esteem- valuing one’s ability Can result in psychological problems or be the cause of them High self-esteem appears to be as much as the product of success than the cause of it Stages of Development – Developmental stages- periods of time marked by age and/or social tasks during which children or adults face common social and emotional challenges Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development – o Emphasized social tasks and the conflicts involved in meeting the demands of the external world o Suggests development doesn’t end with adolescent Freud’s- o Highlighted the child’s internal struggles with sexuality as marking the various stages in development 1, 6 and 12 are crucial times of changes for children Development transitions mark the end of one developmental stage and the beginning of the new one o Often a time in turmoil o May worsen or contribute to abnormal behavior Social Factors - Abnormal behavior can be understood in social roles- behavior that is shaped by social scripts - Labeling theory suggests that people’s actions conform to the expectations created by the label a process termed the self-fulfilling prophesy - Marital status and psychological problems are clearly correlated - Twin studies suggest divorce does cause some psychological problems in both children and adults - Research shows a good relationship with someone on the outside of family shows better mental health - Social support – emotional and practical assistance received from others Your at greater risk from having no social support There’s evidence that depression, and anger can come from being ostracized, ignored or excluded Gender roles- expectations regarding the appropriate behavior of males and females can dramatically affect our behavior Example: Women traditional roles foster dependency and helplessness Some argue that gender roles might not cause abnormal behavior but can influence how psychopathology is expressed - Poverty is linked to many stressors including exposure to gruesome traumas
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